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Over 9 million cats suffer from litter box issues and aversion. It’s a leading reason why cats are abused, abandoned and
surrendered to shelters. Recommendations to try to correct a cat’s inappropriate elimination problem:

A. Neuter/spay if not already done
B. Manipulate Environment
( ) 1. Limit exposure to outdoor cats (pull blinds).
( ) 2. Increase or decrease time spent outdoors.
( ) 3. Change significance of marking areas (Food/Toys).
( ) 4. Make marking areas aversive (Foil, Lemon scented up-side down carpet runner, air freshener)
( ) 5. Moth balls in outdoor plantings, window wells, etc.
( ) 6. Feliway - pheromone therapy
C. Drug Therapy
Litter Aversion:
( ) 6. Use plain clay or sand-like clay, non-perfumed, 2-3 inches deep.
( ) 7. Scoop urine and feces daily; change at least weekly.
( ) 8. Use only plain soap and water to clean, rinse well.
( ) 9. Do not add Baking Soda or other "odor neutralizers" to box.
( ) 10. Remove hood.
( ) 11. Provide one box per cat in multi-cat households. (Within limits)
( ) 12. Give choice of substrate.
Location Aversion:
( ) 13. Move box to quieter area.
( ) 14. Separate box from feeding area.
( ) 15. Don't punish then put in box.
( ) 16. Improve accessibility of box.
Substrate Preference:
( ) 17. Alter substrate/surface -- cover carpet with thick plastic, leave water in bathtub--remove alteration gradually.
( ) 18. Place preferred substrate next to non-aversive litter.
Location preference:
( ) 19. Change significance of preferred location (with food or toys).
( ) 20. Make preferred location aversive (with foil, lemon scent); Remove aversive substance gradually.
( ) 21. Place litter box at preferred location, gradually return to original location.
Sometimes, rewarding the cat with praise and a special treat every time it uses the box is also helpful. Punishment and confinement are seldom of value in
correcting the problem, and indeed, may be detrimental if the punishment is perceived by the cat to be connected with the litter box.

We also recommend the following
 1st schedule a vet check-up – often times cats may have a urinary tract infection causing litter box issues!
Feliway – which can be purchased at most major pet retail stor
 the only litter designed for cats that do not consistently use their litter box. Every bag has a free solutions booklet inside giving you answers to solve your cats litter box aversion.  Discuss medications with your veterinarian – such as kitty Prozac. Remember if you’re not willing to deal with YOUR cat/s litter box issues….many adopters aren’t either and their hopes for adoption are very minimal. Please try everything possible before giving up your kitty….

Source: http://www.sterlingshelter.org/images/pdfs/cats-and-litterbox.pdf

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