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A Close Look at Some Common
Herbicides for Turf and Landscape
Randy Prostak - UMass Extension Agriculture and Landscape Program
Massachusetts Association of Landscape Professionals
April 19, 2011

2. Different from a weed- or pest-based presentation, this is an herbicide- or product-based
presentation, Aimed to increase your knowledge of the herbicides used in turf and
3. Able to use and take advantage of off-patent generics or herbicides-on-fertilizer products
Hopefully a new way in which you look at weed management tools
4. Review some old, long time standards, Some new herbicides and products that you may have
seen in trade magazines or electronic mailing lists
5. Acetaminophen, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Naproxen, OH MY!!!! - OTC pain relievers with some

6. aspirin – Bayer, Bufferin, several pharmacy generics first and most common over-the-counter
- treats headaches, minor body aches and pains, reduces inflammation
7. acetaminophen (or paracetamol) - Tylenol and several pharmacy generics – combinations with
- relieve the symptoms of fever and headaches - not an anti-inflammatory substance (not appropriate for arthritis or sprains) - milder effect on the upper digestive tract than other OTC relievers (less irritating to stomach lining, better for those with acid reflux disease, ulcers, etc) - more dangerous than aspirin – (dosage and its amount are not very different)
8. ibuprofen – Advil, Motrin, several pharmacy generics
- best product for pain resulting from inflammation (arthritis, sprains, sunburns) - less irritation to esophagus and stomach lining than aspirin and naproxen - better for those with ulcers or acid reflux disease
9. naproxen (or naprosyn) - Aleve
- especially effective as an anti-inflammatory agent for arthritis, sprains, and other - longer lasting - often for 8-12 hours instead of 4-8 hours for others - may increase your risk of life-threatening heart or circulation problems (heart attack or stroke). Do not use just before or after having heart bypass surgery. 10. Acetaminophen, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Naproxen, OH MY!!!!
- differ in side effects – short or long term - one w/ role in treatment of heart disease
11. Common Herbicides for Turf and Landscape
Postemergence - roadleaf, grasses (graminicides), yellow nutsedge, non-selective
12. Common Herbicides for Turf and Landscape: Preemergence Herbicides
13. dithiopyr - Armortech CGC 40, Crab and Spurge Preventer, Dimension (2EW, EC, Ultra SC,
Ultra 40WP, Ultra WSP), Dynamo 40WSP, Lifeguard, Quaili-Pro Dithiopyr 0WSB, - preemergence herbicide and very early POST on 3-leaf growth stage crabgrass - PRE control annual grasses including annual bluegrass, barnyardgrass, crabgrass, downy brome, yellow foxtail and sandbur. - PRE control of broadleaf weeds including carpetweed, henbit, purslane, shepardspurse, spurge, and woodsorrel (yellow & creeping)
14. prodiamine - Barricade (4FL, 65WG), Calvalcade 65WDG, Echelon 45SC (combination with
sulfentrazone, Guardrail 65WDG, Knighthawk, Quail-Pro Prodiamine 65WDG, Stonewall 65WDG, Primeraone Prodiamine 65WDG, Proclipse (4F, 65WDG), Resolute 65WDG, - very low water solubility, and is strongly adsorbed to soil. - PRE control of crabgrass, goosegrass, annual bluegrass and other annual grasses. - PRE control of broadleaf weeds including carpetweed, chickweed, henbit, purslane,
15. pendimethalin - Pendulum (2G, 3.3EC, AquaCap), Pre-M 3.3EC,
on-fertilizer formulations (Halts, Pre-M) - low water solubility, and is strongly adsorbed to soil. low potential for leaching. - PRE control of crabgrass, barnyardgrass, yellow foxtail, annual bluegrass and - PRE control of broadleaf weeds including chickweed, prostrate knotweed, purslane,
16. isoxaben – Gallery, Snapshot (isoxben + trifluralin for nursery and landscape)
- only compound available exclusively for preemergence control of broadleaf weeds - PRE control of a wide range of broadleaf weeds including black medic, carpetweed, dandelion, henbit, plantain, purslane, red sorrel, spurge, white clover, yellow 17. trifluralin – Preen, Treflan, component of Team & Snapshot
- bagged mulch with trifluralin add, degraded by the time it is needed annual bluegrass, barnyardgrass, carpetweed, chickweed, crabgrass, foxtail, goosegrass, henbit, knotweed, lambsquarters, pigweed and sandbur
18 & 19. Should they go on top or under mulch?
20. Common Herbicides for Turf and Landscape: Postemergence Broadleaf Herbicides
21. dicamba - Vanquish, Banvel, in many combination broadleaf herbicide products (Trimec,
Eliminate, Coolpower, Horsepower, Q4, T-Zone, Trupower) - weeds curl and twist soon after application - avoid drift to desirable plants, particularly flowers, ornamentals, and other BRDLF plants
22. dicamba (cont’d) - Vanquish, Banvel, in many combination broadleaf herbicide products
(Trimec, Eliminate, Coolpower, Horsepower, Q4, T-Zone, Trupower) - leaches readily and is soil active; applications within the dripline of trees should be - controls red sorrel, violets, plantains, chickweed, groundivy, buttercup,
23. triclopyr - Battleship III, Eliminate, Coolpower, Horsepower, Turflon II Amine, T-Zone,
Turflon Ester, Three-way Ester II, Momentum FX2, Garlon (brush control) - POST broadleaf weeds and has little or no activity on grasses. - translocated and symtoms induces an epinastic (leaf curling) response and death in - potential for leaching decreases as soil organic matter increases and when conditions are favorable for soil microbial activity - effective control of poison ivy, ground ivy, wild violets, and other difficult-to-control
24. clopyralid – Lontrel, component of combination broadleaf herbicide products (Confront,
- translocated herbicide and injury symptoms include the epinastic bending and twisting - clopyralid products are restricted on residential turf. Treated clippings should not be collected for mulching and composting (at a recycling facility). - VERY EFFECT on members of the aster family (dandelion & hawkweed) and bean family (clover, black medic & birdsfoot trefoil). Caution near ornamentals such as aster, daisy, coneflower, redbud, and honey locust. No control of plantains and evening primrose 25. Postemergence - grasses (graminicides)
Note for all: no control of broadleaf weeds and use caution around ornamental grasses
26. Postemergence - grasses (graminicides)
- annual grasses in broadleaf landscape ornamentals - OTT - fluazifop-butyl, sethoxydim and clethodim: - annual and perennial grasses in broadleaf landscape ornamentals
27. fenoxaprop-ethyl - Acclaim Extra, Bayer Advanced Crabgrass Killer for Lawns
- POST control of annual grassy weeds, crabgrass best before 1- to 2-tiller growth stage - drought stress may significantly reduce the efficacy - herbicide antagonism may occur when some broadleaf herbicides are tank-mixed with or applied within a certain period of time and reduce the efficacy of fenoxprop. - controls: crabgrass (large and smooth), goosegrass, barnyardgrass, yellow foxtail, sandbur and Japanese stiltgrass (few others labelled for JS).
28. fluazifop-butyl - Fusilade II, Ornamec 170, Ornamec Over-The-Top Grass Herbicide
weeds: barnyardgrass,downy brome, fall panicum, sandbur, foxtail (giant & yellow) goosegrass, quackgrass, crabgrass (smooth and large), witchgrass -“over-the-top”, some species directed - juniper & azalea
29. sethoxydim - Segment, Vantage, Grass Getter,
Grass Beater Over-The-Top Grass Killer, Sethoxydim (SPC, G-Pro & E-Pro)
30. clethodim – Envoy, Envoy Plus, Cleo 26.4, Clethodim 2E
- perennial grass - better than other POST grass herbicides 31. quinclorac – alone (Armortech Quin Pro 75DF, Eject 75DF, Drive (75DF, XLR8), Primeraone
Quinclorac 75DF, Quali-Pro Quinclorac 75DF) and in Combinations (Solitare, OneTime, Q4, - PRE and POST control of annual grass weeds and several broadleaf weeds. - symptoms on broadleaf weeds include leaf and stem curl or twisting, and chlorosis. Susceptible grasses demonstrate stunting and chlorosis, and gradual reddening - POST treatments require addition of a methylated seed oil, crop oil concentrate or high quality surfactant for best control.
32. quinclorac (cont’d) –
- applied POST will provide good to excellent control of crabgrass, yellow foxtail, barnyardgrass, white clover, black medic, dandelion and speedwell. - crabgrass control - before the 2-tiller and after the 5-tiller stage of growth. - can be used before or after seeding or over-seeding of cool-season turfgrasses for the control of crabgrass and other annual grasses. - beware of fine fescue, especially when under stress
33. DRIVE label (use with respect to seeding of turfgrass species), review label
34. Common Herbicides for Turf and Landscape: Postemergence Yellow Nutsedge Herbicides
35. halosulfuron – Manage, Sedgehammer, several generics
- yellow nutsedge in early season, generally before mid- to late June, late give poor control - 0.25 – 0.5% v/v nonionic surfactant, 1-2 quarts/ 100 gal of spray (high vol – 1 qt. max.)
36. sulfentrazone - Dismiss, Q4, Q4 plus, Surge, Eschelon 4SC (combination with pendimethalin)
- controls or suppresses yellow nutsedge - control star-of-Bethlehem, emerging problem!!!!!! 37. Common Herbicides for Turf and Landscape: Non-selective postemergence

38. & 39.
- contact type - best on annuals, perennial weak, very quick acting - pelargonic acid – Scythe, great as a sucker remover - acetic acid, clove oil, citric acid, orange extr. - not strongly translocated - annuals, perennials?? - glufosinate – Finale - less injury with drift, perennials weak - glyphosate - Roundup Pro, Prosecutor, many generic others - BEWARE - generics may perform differently - caution to prevent “collateral damage” primarily from drift
40. Natural or Organic Products
Products contain: acetic acid, citric acid, clove oil, orange extract - good spray coverage, mixed as percent spray volume - therefore inc. $ - many repeat applications on perennials
41. Advertisement states “Test shows that new herbicide containing vinegar will control Canada
thistle”. Original research looked at seedling Canada thistle - the seedlings of perennial weeds can be controlled as if they were annuals.
42. Better on broadleaves than grasses due to location of growing points.
44. orange extract, RTU - $ 8.95 for 24oz, concentrate - $60 for 1 gallon
- mix spray preparation 19, 25 or 50% v/v
45. 20% or 200 grain acetic acid
- one gallon ready-to-use - $24.95 + shipping - four one gallon jugs - $75.00 - free shipping - eight one gallon jugs - $150.00 - free shipping
46. Non-selective Natural or Organic Products
- non-crop areas? - spot treatment in turf?? 47. Common Herbicides for Turf and Landscape: New Herbicides
48. mesotrione -TENACITY in turf
- mode of action: Mesotrione inhibits p-hydoxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and results in an indirect inhibition of carotenoid synthesis. - symptoms in susceptible weeds include bleaching follow by necrosis. - discovery of mesotrione was a result of the investigation of the allelochemical leptospermone, which is produced by the roots of the “bottle brush” plant Callistemon citrinus. Mesotrione is a synthetic analogues of leptospermone.
49. Label: EPA reduced risk pesticide
- mesotrione first labeled under the tradename Callisto for use in field corn, sweet corn, popcorn, cranberries, blueberries and asparagus. - received label for use in turf under the tradename Tenacity a couple of years ago, its use was for golf courses and sod fields only. -effective April 2010, a new label includes athletic fields, parks, commercial Spring 2011?? residential turf? and at turf establishment? Weed Activity: pre and post annual grasses
52. aminocyclopyrachlor, tradename: Imprelis
Label: Federal done, waiting for state approvals, MA approval March 16, 2011 Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, fine fescue, tall fescue low use rates: 0.047 to 0.094 lb acid/A, apparent synergism with fenoxaprop
Thank you for your attention!!
rprostak@umext.umass.edu, 413-577-1738

Source: http://www.mlp-mclp.org/pdfs/HO_prostak.pdf

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