Microsoft word - dec 2009.doc

Super bugs Dec. 2009/Jan. 2010

TITLE: Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and endotoxin associated with the land
application of biosolids
Brooks, J.P., S.L. Maxwell, C. Rensing, C.P. Gerba, and I.L. Pepper
Source: Can. J. Microbiol. 2007 53:616-622
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and endotoxin in soil
after land application of biosolids. Soil was collected over a 15 month period following land application of biosolids, and
antibiotic resistance was ascertained using clinically relevant antibiotic concentrations. Ampicillin, cephalothin, ciprofloxa-
cin, and tetracycline resistance were all monitored separately for any changes throughout the 15 month period. Endotoxin
soil concentrations were monitored using commercially available endotoxin analysis reagents. Overall, land application of
biosolids did not increase the percentage of antibiotic-resistant culturable bacteria above background soil levels. Likewise,
land application of biosolids did not significantly increase the concentration of endotoxin in soil. This study determined
and established a baseline understanding of the overall effect that land application of biosolids had on the land-applied
field with respect to antibiotic-resistant bacterial and endotoxin soil densities.
Document#: BIN.MI.PA.5.15
Antibiotic resistance in soil and water environments
Author: Esiobu, N., L. Armenta, and J. Ike
Source: International J. Environ. Health Research. 2002 12:133-144
Abstract: Seven locations were screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria using a modified agar dilution technique. Isolates resistant to
high levels of antibiotics were screened for r plasmids. Low-level resistance (25 µg ml[sup -1]) was widespread for ampicillin,
penicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin and streptomycin but not for kanamycin. Resistant populations dropped sharply at high antibiotic
levels, suggesting that intrinsic non-emergent mechanisms were responsible for the multiple drug resistance exhibited at low doses.
Dairy farm manure contained significantly (P < 0.01) more (%) resistant bacteria than the other sites. Bacteria isolated from a dairy
water canal, a lake by a hospital and a residential garden (fertilized by farm manure) displayed resistance frequencies of 77, 75 and 70%,
respectively. Incidence of tetracycline resistance was most prevalent at 47-89% of total bacteria. Out of 200 representative isolates
analyzed, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus-like bacteria, Enterobacter and Burkholderia species constituted the dominant reservoirs of
resistance at high drug levels (50-170 µg ml[sup -1]). Plasmids were detected in only 29% (58) of these bacteria with tetracycline
resistance accounting for 65% of the plasmid pool. Overall, resistance trends correlated to the abundance and type of bacterial species
present in the habitat. Environmental reservoirs of resistance include opportunistic pathogens and constitute some public health concern.
Document#: AGN.MI.PA.5.2

Fate and Transport of Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic Resistance Genes following
Land Application of Manure Waste
Chee-Sanford, J.C., R.I. Mackie, S. Koike, I.G. Krapac, Y. Lin, A. C. Yannarell, S. Maxwell, and R. I. Aminov
J. Environ. Qual. 2009 38:1719-1727
Abstract: Antibiotics are used in animal livestock production for therapeutic treatment of disease and at subtherapeutic levels for
growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. It is estimated that approximately 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals
and are excreted in waste. Antibiotic resistance selection occurs among gastrointestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in manure and
stored in waste holding systems. Land application of animal waste is a common disposal method used in the United States and is a means
for environmental entry of both antibiotics and genetic resistance determinants. Concerns for bacterial resistance gene selection and
dissemination of resistance genes have prompted interest about the concentrations and biological activity of drug residues and break-
down metabolites, and their fate and transport. Fecal bacteria can survive for weeks to months in the environment, depending on species
and temperature, however, genetic elements can persist regardless of cell viability. Phylogenetic analyses indicate antibiotic resistance
genes have evolved, although some genes have been maintained in bacteria before the modern antibiotic era. Quantitative measurements
of drug residues and levels of resistance genes are needed, in addition to understanding the environmental mechanisms of genetic
selection, gene acquisition, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of these resistance genes and their bacterial hosts. This review article
discusses an accumulation of findings that address aspects of the fate, transport, and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance
genes in natural environments, with emphasis on mechanisms pertaining to soil environments following land application of animal waste
Document#: AGN.MI.PA.5.3
To request information or documents, please contact Sal y Brown via e-mail: or phone: (206) 616-1299.

Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent
Brooks, J.P. and M.R. McLaughlin
Source: J. Environ. Qual. 2009 38: 2431-2437.
Abstract: Although land application of swine (Sus scrofa) manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the
presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its
safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance in swine lagoon bacteria from sow, nursery, and finisher farms in
the southeastern United States. Effluents from 37 lagoons were assayed for the presence of Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria,
and Salmonella. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer swab method for 12 antibiotics comprising eight
classes. Statistical analyses indicated that farm type influenced the amount and type of resistance, with nurseries and sow farms ranking
as most influential, perhaps due to use of more antibiotic treatments. Finisher farms tended to have the least amount of antibiotic class
resistance, signaling an overall healthier market pig, and less therapeutic or prophylactic antibiotic use. Many bacterial isolates were
resistant to penicillin, cephalosporin, and tetracycline class antibiotics, while nearly all were susceptible to quinolone antibiotics. It
appeared that swine farm type had a significant association with the amount of resistance associated with bacterial genera sampled from
the lagoons; nurseries contributed the largest amount of bacterial resistance.
Document#: AGN.MI.PA.5.3
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in biosolids/sewage sludge: the interface
between analytical chemistry and regulation
Jones-Lepp, T.L. and R. Stevens
Source: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2007 387:4:1618-2642
Abstract: Modern sanitary practices result in large volumes of human waste, as well as domestic and industrial sewage, being collected
and treated at common collection points, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In recognition of the growing use of sewage sludge as
fertilizers and soil amendments, and the scarcity of current data regarding the chemical constituents in sewage sludge, the US National
Research Council (NRC) in 2002 produced a report on sewage sludge. Among the NRC’s recommendations was the need for
investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage sludge. PPCPs are a diverse array of non-
regulated contaminants that had not been studied in previous sewage sludge surveys but which are likely to be present. The focus of this
paper will be to review the current analytical methodologies available for investigating whether pharmaceuticals are present in WWTP-
produced sewage sludge, to summarize current regulatory practices regarding sewage sludge, and to report on the presence of
pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge.
Document#: BIN.MI.PA.5.16


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