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Titre

Stargardt disease
Author: Professor August. F. Deutman1
Creation Date: January 2003

Scientific Editor: Professor Jean-Jacques De Laey
1Institute of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Nijmegen, Postbox 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands. Abstract
Stargardt's disease is a form of juvenile hereditary macular degeneration characterized by discrete
yellowish round or pisciform flecks around the macula at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (rpe).
Stargardt's disease is the most common hereditary macular dystrophy. Prevalence is estimated between
1 in 8,000 and 1 in 10,000. Disease onset occurs typically in the first or second decade of life and
manifests as decreased visual acuity. In the early stages, the macula usually shows discrete rpe changes,
followed later by an horizontal ovoid zone of beaten bronze atrophy. In final stages, the macula can be
associated with central areolar choroidal dystrophy. Fluorescein angiography reveals the characteristic
dark choroid (''silence choroidien''), which probably results from the accumulation of lipofuscin in the rpe.
This disease has usually an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern but some dominant pedigrees have
been reported. The autosomal type has been associated with mutations in the ABCR gene, which
encodes a transmembrane transporter protein expressed by the rod outer segments. There is currently no
treatment available for Stargardt's disease.

Keywords
Stargardt, Macula, Fundus flavimaculatus
Disease name and synonyms
Definition
Stargardt’s disease (Stargardt, 1909, 1913, 1916, 1917, 1925; Weleber, 1994; Armstrong et al., 1998) is a form of juvenile hereditary macular Excluded diseases
degeneration characterized by discrete yellowish round or pisciform flecks around the macula at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium (rpe). This condition is also referred to as fundus flavimaculatus (Deutman and Hoyng, 2001). Frequency
Stargardt’s disease is the most common hereditary macular dystrophy. The incidence of Stargardt’s disease is unknown. Approximate Deutman A. Stargardt’s disease. Orphanet Encyclopedia. January 2003. http://www.orpha.net/data/patho/GB/uk-Stargardt.pdf 1 estimates place the rate of prevalence between Men and women are equally affected and no degeneration (AMD) but further studies are necessary (Bernstein et al., 2002). Recently Glazer and Dryja presented a three-step Clinical description
Patients present typically in the first or second Stargardt’s disease (Glazer and Dryja, 2002). decade of life, complaining of decreased visual 1. Defective Rim protein, a protein encoded by acuity. Both eyes are generally equally and the ABCA4 gene causes an accumulation of symetrically affected. Visual acuity usually protonated N-retinyledine-PE in the rod outer gradually diminishes to 20/200 (6/60; 0.1) and has a significant correlation with the matching 2. A2-E, a byproduct of N-retinyledine-PE then ranges of the Rayleigh equation (Mantyjarvi and accumulates in the rpe cells and is toxic to them. 3. Photoreceptors eventually die secondary to Clinical presentation in Stargardt’s disease varies greatly. Early manifestation may only consist of some yellowish flecks and a macula Diagnosis
with a snail’s slime aspect. In the later stages of Fluorescein angiography plays a key role in the the disease, the macula may show a bull’s eye diagnosis of Stargardt’s, as it evidences dark pattern with rpe-atrophy or a beaten-bronze choroid (“silence choroidien”), a characteristic sign of the disease that probably results from the The functional changes remain usually restricted accumulation of lipofuscin in the rpe. The retinal to the posterior pole of the eye, but they vasculature, and especially the retinal capillaries, sometimes also affect the peripheral retina degenerative retinopathy or mixed tapeto retinal Functional findings show usually a normal ERG, degeneration). In those cases, the vessels are attenuated, the discs may become pale and pigmentary changes become obvious; the References
Armstrong JD, Meyer D, Xu S et al. Long-term
follow-up of Stargardt’s disease and fundus and the visual fields may be attenuated. flavimaculatus. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:448- Disease onset is associated with a very slight defect in processing red-green vision in retina. A Bernstein PS, Leppert M, Singh N, Dean M,
distinct acquired red (pseudo-protanomalous) Lewis RA, Lupski JR, Allikmets R, Seddon JM. defect is observed later in the disease course. In Genotype-phenotype analysis of ABCR variants advanced stages, the red defect becomes much in macular degeneration and siblings. Invest stronger (scotopization). A blue defect can also Cremers FP, Van de Pol DJ, Van Driel M, Den
Hollander AI, Van Haren FJ, Knoers NV, Tijmes
Management including treatment
N, Bergen AA, Rohrschneider K, Blankenagel A, Low-vision aids are prescribed and no other treatment is currently available (Fishman et al., Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy caused by splice site mutations in the Stargardt’s disease gene Etiology
Stargardt’s disease has usually an autosomal Cremers FP, Maugeri A, Klevering BJ, Hoefsloot
recessive inheritance pattern but some dominant LH, Hoyng CB. Van gen naar ziekte; van het pedigrees have been reported. The autosomal ABCA4-gen naar de ziekte van Stargardt, kegel- type has been associated to mutations in the stavendystrofie en retinitis pigmentosa. Ned ABCA4 (ABCR) gene, which maps to 1p21-p13. ABCA4 encodes a transmembrane transporter Deutman AF and Hoyng C. Macular
protein that is expressed by the rod outer Dystrophies. Retina. Ed. SJ Ryan, 3rd ed. Ed segments (Cremers et al., 1998; Klevering et al., Mosby, St. Louis, Missouri. 2001;70:1210-57. Fishman GA, Farber M, Patel BS et al. Visual
ABCA4 mutations may also lead to autosomal acuity loss in patients with Stargardt’s macular recessive cone rod dystrophy (Cremers et al., dystrophy. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:809-14. 2002; Rudolph et al., 2002; Fukui et al., 2002). Fukui T, Yamamoto S, Nakano K, Tsujikawa M,
Morimura H, Nishida K, Ohguro N, Fujikado T,
Deutman A. Stargardt’s disease. Orphanet Encyclopedia. January 2003. http://www.orpha.net/data/patho/GB/uk-Stargardt.pdf 2 Irifune M, Kuniyoshi K, Okada AA, Hirakata A, family with Stargardt’s disease and pigmentosa Miyake Y, Tano Y. ABCA4 gene mutations in Japanese patients with Stargardt disease and retinitis pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Stargardt K. Ueber familiare, progressive
Degeneration in der Makulagegend des Auges. Glazer LC, Dryja, TP. Understanding the
Albrecht von Graefes Arch Klin Ophthalmol. etiology of Stargardt’s disease. Ophthalmol Clin Stargardt K. Ueber familiare progressive
Klevering BJ, Van Driel M, Van de Pol DJ,
Degeneration in der Makulagegend des Auges. Phenotypic variations in a family with retinal Stargardt K. Zur Kasuistik der “familiaren,
dystrophy as result of different mutations in the progressiven Degeneration in der Makulagegend ABCR gene. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83:914-8. des Auges”. Z Augenheilk. 1916;35:249. Maugeri A, Klevering BJ, Rohrschneider K,
Stargardt K. Ueber familiare Degeneration in
Hoyng CB, Cremers FP. Mutations in the ABCA4 psychische Störungen, Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. (ABCR) gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;67:960-6. Mantyjarvi M, Tuppurainen K. Color vision in
Stargardt K. Ein Fall von familiarer progressiver
Makuladegeneration. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilk. Rudolph G, Kalpadakis P, Haritoglou C, Rivera
Weleber RG. Stargardt’s macular dystrophy.
A, Weber BH. Mutations in the ABCA4 gene in a Deutman A. Stargardt’s disease. Orphanet Encyclopedia. January 2003. http://www.orpha.net/data/patho/GB/uk-Stargardt.pdf 3

Source: http://www.familyfaults.co.za/Conditions/uk-Stargardt.pdf

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