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Compendium of Drugs and Compounds Used in Amphibians1 Antibacterial Compounds
50 mg/kg SQ, IM or IC q 24 hr; 20 mg/L bath; 10 10 mg/kg PO q 24-48 hr for 7 tx; 25-37.5 mg/gal for 6-8 2.5 mg/kg IM q 72 hr (cold temp. of 3°C); 3 mg/kg IM q 24 hr (warm temp. of 2°C); 13 mg/kg q 48 hr (axolotel); 8 µg/mL in 0.5% saline as 24-hr bath for 5 50 mg/kg PO q 24 hr for 3 days, 50 mg/L bath for up to 10 mg/L bath; 10 µg/ml in 0.5% saline bath for 24 hr 10-20 mg/L bath for 24 hr; 100 mg/L bath for up to 1 g/kg diet for 7 days; 100 mg/L bath for 1 hr; 125 mg/L 50 mg/kg PO q 12 hr; 10 µg/ml in 0.5% saline bath for 15 mg/kg PO q 24 hr up to 21 days; 20 µg/mL in 0.5% saline bath for 24 hr; 80 µg/mL in 0.5% saline bath for 1IC, intracoelomic; IM, intramuscular; PO, per os; SQ, subcutaneous; tx, treatment.
Stephen A. Smith, D.V.M., Ph.D., is Professor of Aquatic Medicine/Fish Health and Director of the Aquatic Medicine Laboratory, Department of BiomedicalSciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Stephen A. Smith, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, VMRCVM, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Duck Pond Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0442, or email
Antifungal Compounds
0.5 mL of a 0.45% acriflavin/0.00075% methylene blue stock added to 1 L Holtfreter’s solution as a 24-hr 2 mg/L as a 60-min bath q 24 hr; 0.25 mg/L, bath for 72 500 mg/L for 2 min q 24 hr for 5 days, then q 7 days 2-10 mg/kg PO q 24 hr for 14-28 days, 0.01% liquid form in 0.6% saline as a 5-min bath for 11 days 10 mg/kg PO q 24 hr; 10-20 mg/kg PO q 24 hr for 50 mg/mL as a 10 second dip, 2-4 mg/L as a 200 mg/L bath q 24 hr for 5 min; 1 g/100 ml as topical 4-6 g/L bath for 72 hr; 10-25 g/L bath for 5-30 min; 20 Antiparasitic Compounds—Protozoa
500 mg/L dip for 2 min q 24 hr; 0.0001 mg/L bath to 1.5 ml/L of a 10% formalin solution dip for 10 min q 10 mg/kg PO once; 10 mg/kg PO q 24 hr for 5-10 days; 50 mg/kg PO q 24 hr fo 3-5 days; 100-150 mg/kg PO q 14-21 days; 50 mg/L bath for up to 24 hr 30 mg/L bath for up to 1 hr (for hemoprotozoans) 4-6 g/L bath for 24-72 hr; 6 g/L bath for 3-5 days; 10-25 Antiparasitic Compounds—Helminths
10 mg/kg PO once; 50 mg/kg PO SID for 3-5 days; 100 mg/kg PO q 10 days, 100 mg/kg PO q 10-14 days, 2 mg/kg topically, then rinse off after a few minutes; 0.2-0.4 mg/kg PO once; 0.2-0.4 mg/kg PO or IM q 14days 8-10 mg/kg IC or topically q 14-21 days; 10 mg/kg IM q 14 days; 50-100 mg/L bath for 1-8 hr q 7 days; 100-300 mg/L bath for 24 hr q 7-4 days for a minimum of 3 tx; 100-300 mg/L bath fo 72 hr q 14-21days for a minimum of 3 tx 10 mg/L bath up to 3 hr q 7-21 days; 8-24 mg/kg PO, Compounds for Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia
50 mg/L (larvae); 200-300 mg/L (adult), buffered with sodium bicarbonate to adjust pH to around 7.0-7.4(sedation, anesthesia) 40 mg/kg SQ (for 4+ hr analgesia); 120 mg/kg SQ (for 3-5% induction, 1-2% maintenance (terrestrial species); 3 mL/L: bubbled into water to effect for aquaticspecies (sedation, anesthesia) 20-40 mg/kg ketamine/0.2-0.4 mg/kg diazepam IM 38 mg/kg SQ once (for analgesia); 30-100 mg/kg SQ, 200-500+ mg/L bath, buffered with and equal amount of sodium bicarbonate to adjust pH to ∼7.0-7.4 (sedation, anesthesia); 10 mg/L bath for minimum of30 min followed by cervical separation (euthanasia) Vitamins
25 mg/kg PO prn; 50-100 mg/kg IM or IC prn 2-3 iu/mL continuous bath; 100-400 iu/kg PO q 24 h; 1000 iu/kg IM once 24 hr after resolution of tetanyfollowing Ca tx Hormones
Gonadotropin-releasing 0.1 mg/kg SC, IM, repeat prn (induction of ovulation) 250-400 IU SC, IM (induction of ovulation); 50-100 IU SC, IM (sperm release); 300 IU SC, IM (sperm Miscellaneous Compounds for Use in Amphibians
0.1 mg/kg SQ or IM prn (for organophosphate toxicosis) 50 iu/kg q 7 days (possibly for metabolic bone disease) 1 mg/kg PO q 24 hr (for metabolic bone disease) 100 mg/kg IM, IV, or IC (for hypocalcemic tetany) 1 drop/100 g (for respiratory problems and cardiac References
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nematodes in a colony of South African clawed frogs. Lab Anim Sci Nichols DK, Lamirande EW. 2000. Treatment of Cutaneous Chytridiomy- cosis in Blue-and-Yellow Poison Dart Frogs (Dendrobates tinctorius).
Crawshaw GJ. 1992. Amphibian medicine. In: Kirk RW, Bonagura JD, Presentation at the conference “Getting the Jump! On Amphibians eds. Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XI. Philadelphia: W.B. Saun- Disease” held August 26-30, 2000, in Cairns, Australia.
Poynton SL, Whitaker BR. 1994. Protozoa in poison dart frogs (Dendro- Crawshaw GJ. 1993. Amphibian medicine. In: Fowler M, ed. Zoo and Wild batidae): Clinical assessment and identification. J Zoo Wildl Med 25: Animal Medicine. Current Therapy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saun- Raphael BL. 1993. Amphibians. Vet Clin N Am: Small Anim Pract 23: Fox WF. 1980. Treatments and dosages. Axolotl Newsltr 9:6.
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Wright KN, Whitaker BR. 2001. Pharmocotherapeutics. In: Wright KN, Lafortune M, Mitchell MA, Smith JA. 2001. Evaluation of medetomidine, Whitaker BR, eds. Amphibian Medicine and Captive Husbandry. Mala- clove oil and propofol for anesthesia of leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. J bar FL: Krieger Publishing Co. p 309-330.
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