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DE BAPTISMO
Editio Martini Mesnartii (Lutetiae, 1545, qui liber impressus codicis manu scripti instar habet. Editio Sigismundi Gelenii (Basiliae, 1550). Editio Iacobi Pamelii (Antverpiae, 1579). Editio Francisci Iunii (Franekerae, 1597) Editio Nicolai Rigaltii (Lutetiae, 1634). Editio maior Francisci Oehleri (Lipsiae, 1853). Editio Reifferscheid-Wissowa (Vindobonae, 1890). Refoulé Editio viri reverendi R. F. Refoulé, O.P. (Parisiis, 1952). Editio viri docti J. G. Ph. Borleffs (Hagae Comitis, 1948: Turnholti, 1952): cui grato animo iterum ea accepta referimus quae in apparatu critico adnotanda censuimus. Coniecturae quoque citantur Latini Latinii (Romae, 1583), Fulvii Ursini (Francofurti, 1603), Aemilii Kroymann (Oeniponte, 1894). --------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------- CAP. 1. [1] De Sacramento aquae nostrae qua ablutis delictis pristinae
caecitatis in vitam aeternam liberamur non erit otiosum digestum istud, instruens tam eos qui cum maxime formantur quam et illos qui simpliciter credidisse contenti, non exploratis rationibus 5 traditionum, temptabilem fidem per imperitiam portant. [2] atque, adeo nuper conversata istic quaedam de caina haeresi vipera venenatissima doctrina sua plerosque rapuit, imprimis baptismum destruens. plane secundum naturam: nam fere viperae et aspides ipsique reguli serpentes arida et inaquosa sectantur. [3] sed nos 10 pisciculi secundum i0xqu\n nostrum Iesum Christum in aqua nascimur, nec aliter quam in aqua permanendo salvi sumus. itaque illa monstrosissima, cui nec integre quidem docendi ius erat, optime norat necare pisciculos de aqua auferens. CAP. 2. [1] Sedenim quanta vis est perversitatis ad fidem labefactandam
vel in totum non recipiendam, ut ex his eam impugnet ex quibus constat. nihil adeo est quod obduret mentes hominum quam simplicitas divinorum operum quae in actu videtur, et magni- 5 ficentia quae in effectu repromittitur. et hinc quoque, quoniam tanta simplicitate, sine pompa sine apparatu novo aliquo, denique sine sumptu, homo in aqua demissus et inter pauca verba tinctus non multo vel nihilo mundior resurgit, eo incredibilis existimatur consecutio aeternitatis. [2] mentior si non e contrario idolorum I: 2 Felix sacramentum.quia.liberamur. B. 5 intentatam probabilem B. imperitiam B: imperia iam T. 6 Caina Harnack: canina T: Gaiana B. 8 nam om. T fere Latinius: ferae BT. 12 itaque illa BT: ita Quintilla Gelenius(falso). 2: 4 videtur Urs.: videntur BT (forsan recte). 5 et hinc T: ut hinc B: quaero an scribendum ut hic. ---------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- 1. This discussion of the sacred significance of that water of ours
in which the sins of our original blindness are washed away and
we are set at liberty unto life eternal, will not be without purpose
if it provides equipment for those who are at present under instruc-
tion, as well as those others who, content to have believed in
simplicity, have not examined the reasons for what has been
conferred upon them, and because of inexperience are burdened
with a faith which is open to temptation. And in fact a certain
female viper from the Cainite sect, who recently spent some time
here, carried off a good number with her exceptionally pestilen-
tial doctrine, making a particular point of demolishing baptism.
Evidently in this according to nature: for vipers and asps as a rule,
and even basilisks, frequent dry and waterless places. But we,
being little fishes, as Jesus Christ is our great Fish, begin our
life in the water, and only while we abide in the water are we safe
and sound. Thus it was that that portent of a woman, who had
no right to teach even correctly,1 knew very well how to kill
the little fishes by taking them out of the water.
2. But take note of the violence on which perversity relies for
undermining the faith or even precluding its acceptance, as it
uses the elements it consists of as weapons to attack it with. There
is indeed nothing which so hardens men's minds as the simplicity
of God's works as they are observed in action, compared with
the magnificence promised in their effects. So in this case too,
because with such complete simplicity, without display, without
any unusual equipment, and (not least) without anything to pay,
a man is sent down into the water, is washed to the accompani-
ment of very few words, and comes up little or no cleaner than
he was, his attainment to eternity is regarded as beyond belief.
On the contrary, if I mistake not, the solemn ceremonies, or even
the secret rites, of idolatry work up for themselves credence and
10 sollemnia vel arcana de suggestu et apparatu deque sumptu fidem et auctoritatem sibi extruunt. pro misera incredulitas, quae denegas deo proprietates suas, simplicitatem et potestatem. quid ergo? nonne mirandum est lavacro dilui mortem? quia miran- dum est, idcirco non creditur? atquin eo magis credendum est: 15 qualia enim decet esse opera divina nisi super omnem admira- tionem? nos quoque ipsi miramur, sed quia credimus. ceterum incredulitas miratur quia non credit: miratur enim simplicia quasi vana, magnifica quasi impossibilia. .[3] et sit plane ut putas: satis ad utrumque divina pronuntiatio praecucurrit: Stulta mundi 20 elegit deus ut confundat sapientiam eius: et, Quae difficilia penes quod etiam praetereuntes eum non negant, merito in adversis sapientiae potentiaeque, id est in stultitia et impossibilitate, materias operationis suae instituit: quoniam virtus omnis ex his CAP. 3. [1] Huius memores pronuntiationis tanquam praescriptionis,
nihilo minus quam stultum et impossibile sit aqua reformari tractamus. quod utique ista materia tantae dignationis meruit officium, ut opinor auctoritas liquidi elementi exigenda est. 5 atquin plurima suppetit, et quidem a primordio. [2] nam unum ex his est quae ante omnem mundi suggestum impolita adhuc specie penes deum quiescebant in principio. In primordio, inquit, fecit deus caelum et terram: terra autem erat invisibilis et incomposita, et tenebrae erant super abyssum, et spiritus dei ferebatur super 10 aquas. habes, homo, imprimis aetatem venerari aquarum, quod antiqua substantia; dehinc dignationem, quod divini spiritus sedes, gratior scilicet ceteris tunc elementis. nam et tenebrae totae adhuc sine cultu siderum informes, et tristis abyssus et terra imparata et caelum rude : solus liquor, semper materia perfecta 13 est T: et B. 13 sqq. quia mirandum, etc. T, sed post creditur quaerendi signum ego ponebam: penes B totes locus mirum in modem conturbatus est. 17 quia non credit T: quia om. B. 19 praecurrit T. 20 sapientia mavult Brf. quae difficilia T: praedifficilia B. 3: 3 tractemus T. quid utique, etc. B, interrogandi signo post officium addito.
7 in primordio om. B, periodo post quiescebant facta.
8 deus om. T.
9 dei T: domini B. super aquas ferebatur B.
prestige by pretentious magnificence and by the fees that are charged. O that poverty-stricken unbelief, which denies to God his characteristic attributes, simplicity and power ! Well then, is it not a marvel that by bathing death is washed away? Because it is a marvel, is that a reason for not believing it? Nay rather, it is so much the more to be believed. For of what quality ought God's works to be if not beyond all admiration? We too marvel: but this is because we believe. Unbelief however marvels, and was borne upon the waters.3 You are bound, my friend, to have in reverence first the antiquity of the waters, that they are an ancient thing, and then the honour done them, that they are the resting place of the Spirit of God, more pleasing to him at that time than the other elements. For the darkness was as yet wholly formless, still without the adornment of the stars, the depth morose, the earth unready, and the sky unshapen: only the liquid, a material 1 1 Cor. 1. 27. 2 Cf. Luke 18. 27. 3 Gen. 1. 1, 2. 15 laeta simplex de suo pura, dignum vectaculum deo subiciebat. [3] quid quod exinde dispositio mundi modulatricibus quodammodo aquis deo constitit? nam ut firmamentum caeleste suspenderet in medietate, distinctis aquis fecit; ut terram aridam expanderet, segregaris aquis expediit. [4] ordinato dehinc per elementa mundo 20 cum incolae darentur, primis aquis praeceptum est animas producere : primus liquor quod viveret edidit, ne mirum sit in baptismo si aquae animare noverunt. [5] non enim ipsius quoque hominis figulandi opus sociantibus aquis absolutum est? adsumpta est de terra materia [convenit], non tamen habilis nisi humecta et 25 sucida, quam scilicet ante quartum diem segregatae aquae in stationem suam superstite humore limo temperarant. [6] si exinde universa vel plura prosequar quae de elementi istius auctoritate commemorem, quanta vis eius aut gratia, quot ingenia quot officia quantum instrumenti mundo ferat, vereor ne laudes aquae 30 potius quam baptismi rationes videar congregasse: licet eo plenius docerem non esse dubitandum si materiam quam in omnibus rebus et operibus suis deus disposuit, etiam in sacramentis propriis parere fecit, si quae vitam terrenam gubernat etiam caelestia procura. CAP. 4. [1] Sed ea satis erit praecerpsisse in quibus et ratio baptismi
recognoscitur prima illa quae iam tunc etiam ipso habitu praenotabatur ad baptismi figuram, dei spiritum qui ab initio super aquas vectabatur super aquas intinctorem moraturum. 17 18 expanderet T: suspenderet B. 21 producere T: proferre B. 23 figulandi Rig.: figurandi BT. absolutum est B: adsumpta est (omisso convenit) T. lectiones coniunxit d'Alés. 24 habili B. 26 temperarant Latinius: temperat T: temperant B. 29 instrumentum B. 30 baptismo T. 31 docere T. 33 terrenam Urs.: aeternam BT. etiam caelestia T: et in caelesti B: etiam 4: 1-4 Sed ea . moraturum: hunc locum ita pungendum censebam. super aquas (priore vice) om. B. instinctorem T Brf. always perfect, joyous, simple, of its own nature pure, laid down there a worthy carriage for God <to move upon>. Next after that also God's ordering of the world was in a sort of way carried out by regulative waters: for by dividing the waters he brought about the suspension of the firmament of heaven in the midst, and by gathering the waters aside <into one place> he accom- plished the spreading out of the dry land.1 Thereafter, when the world had had its constituents set in order, and inhabitants began to be given to it, it was the waters first which were commanded to bring forth living things:2 the liquid was the first to bring forth that which should have life, so that in baptism it need be no wonder if waters already know how to make alive. And was not also the task even of forming man accomplished with waters in partnership?3 Matter was taken up from the earth: yet it was only workable through being moistened and wet - the earth in fact which the waters, when gathered aside into their own place four days before, had modified into mud by the moisture left behind. If I go on to tell of all or most of the things I could relate concerning the significance of this element, the greatness of its power or its favour, with all the devices, all the functions, all the equipment it supplies the world with, I fear I should seem to have composed a panegyric on water in preference to the doctrine of baptism: though even so, I should be explaining more fully that there is no room for doubt whether God has brought into service in his very own sacraments that same material which he has had at his disposal in all his acts and works, and whether this which is the guide of earthly life makes provision of heavenly 5 sanctum autem utique super sanctum ferebatur, aut ab eo quod superferebatur id quod ferebat sanctitatem mutuabatur, quoniam subiecta quaeque materia eius quae desuper imminet qualitatem rapiat necesse est, maxime corporalis spiritalem et penetrare et in- sidere facilem per substantiae suae subtilitatem. ita de sancto sancti- 10 ficata natura aquarum et ipsa sanctificare concepit. [2] ne quis ergo dicat, 'numquid ipsis enim aquis tinguimur quae tunc in primor- dio fuerunt?' non utique ipsis, si non ex ea parte ipsis qua genus omnes aquae de pristina originis praerogativa sacramentum 20 sanctificationis consequuntur invocato deo. supervenit enim statim spiritus de caelis et aquis superest sanctificans eas de semetipso, et ita sanctificatae vim sanctificandi combibunt. [5] quan- quam ad simplicem actum competat similitudo, ut quoniam vice sordium delictis inquinamur aquis abluamur. sed delicta sicut in 25 carne non comparent, quia nemo super cutem portat maculas idololatriae aut stupri aut fraudis, ita et eiusmodi in spiritu sordent, qui est auctor delicti: spiritus enim dominatur, caro famu- latur. tamen utrumque inter se communicant reatum, spiritus ob imperium, caro ob ministerium. igitur medicatis quodammodo 30 aquis per angeli interventum et spiritus in aquis corporaliter diluitur et caro in eisdem spiritaliter emundatur. 9 sublimitatem T. 10 ne quis ergo T: nemo B. 11 enim . tunc om. T. 12 ipsis si non Brf.: ipsi nisi B: ipsis non T. ipsis (post parte) om. B. 14 in specie B. 15 an (prima vice et secunda) om. T. 17 Tiberim T. ille om. T Brf. 22 post combibunt add. T ut enim sordes in corpore apparent ita vice sordium aquis abluuntur: B vero addidit vice sordium aquis abluantur: et hoc et 25 maculam B. 31 mundatur B. thing in fact was carried upon a holy thing - or rather, that which carried acquired holiness from that which was carried upon it. Any matter placed beneath another is bound to take to itself the quality of that which is suspended over it: and especially must corporal matter take up spiritual quality, which because of the subtlety of the substance it belongs to finds it easy to penetrate and inhere. Thus the nature of the waters, having received holi- ness from the Holy, itself conceived power to make holy. Let no one on that account object, 'But are we then baptized in those the master, and the body the servant. Yet each of these imparts guilt to the other, the spirit by its directive, the flesh by service rendered. Thus when the waters have in some sense acquired healing power by an angel's intervention, the spirit is in those waters corporally washed, while the flesh is in those same waters spiritually cleansed. CAP. 5. [1] Sedenim nationes extraneae ab omni intellectu spiritalium
potestatem eadem efficacia idolis suis subministrant. sed viduis aquis sibi mentiuntur. nam et sacris quibusdam per lavacrum initiantur Isidis alicuius aut Mithrae. ipsos etiam deos suos 5 lavationibus efferunt. ceterum villas domos templa totasque urbes aspergine circumlatae aquae expiant. passim certe ludis Apollinari- bus et Pelusiis tinguuntur, idque se in regenerationem et impuni- tatem periuriorum suorum agere praesumunt. item penes veteres quisque se homicidio infecerat purgatrices aquas ex- 10 plorabat. [2] igitur si idolo, natura aquae quod propria [materia] sit abluendi, auspici emundationis blandiuntur, quanto id verius aquae praestabunt per dei auctoritatem a quo omnis natura earum constituta est: si religione aquas medicari putant, quae potior religio quam dei vivi agnitio? [3] hic quoque studium diaboli 15 recognoscimus res dei aemulantis, cum et ipse baptismum in suis exercet. quid simile? immundus emundat, perditor liberat, damnatus absolvit? suam videlicet operam destruet diluens delicta quae inspirat ipse. haec quidem in testimonium posita sort repellentibus fidem, si minime credant rebus dei, quarum 20 adfectationibus apud aemulatorem dei credunt. [4] an non et alias sine ullo sacramento immundi spiritus aquis incubant adfectantes illam in primordio divini spiritus gestationem? sciunt opaci quique fontes et avii quique rivi, et in balneis piscinae et euripi in domibus vel cisternae, et putei qui rapere dicuntur, scilicet per 25 vim spiritus nocentis. nam et esetos et lymphaticos et hydro- phobas vocant quos aquae necaverunt aut amentia vel formidine exercuerunt. [5] quorsum ista rettulimus? ne quis durius credat 5: 2 potestatem Gel.: potestatum BT: potestatum, eandem efficaciam cj. Hartel.
9 purgatrices agues explorabat B: purgatrice aqua expiabatur T. 10 si idolo Brf.: sidolo T: si de sole B. propria materia sit B. 11 abluendi Urs.: adloquendi B: adlegendi T. auspici Brf.: auspicii T: in auspicii B. 14 vivi agnitio? T: vivi? quo agnito B. 16 mundat T. 20 aemulum dei B: aemulatorem deum T. 25 esetos scribebam: esietos B: scetos T. hydrophobas BT, Hieronymus, Isidorus: hydrophobos Gel. 5 'But', you object, 'the gentiles, strangers to all understanding
of spiritual things, ascribe power of equal effectiveness to their
idols.' They tell themselves lies, for their waters are barren. In
certain sacred rites they are initiated by means of a bath <so as to
belong to> Isis perhaps or Mithras. Also they carry their gods
out <in procession> for washings. Moreover they ritually purify
their country and town houses, their temples, and whole cities,
by carrying water about and sprinkling it. Certainly at the Apol-
suppose they are doing this with a view to rebirth and release from their broken oaths. Among the ancients, one who had infected himself with homicide looked about for purifying waters. So then, if because cleansing is a particular characteristic of water, they seek favours of an idol as agent of purification, how much more truly shall water convey that benefit by the authority of the God by whom every one of its attributes has been appointed? If they suppose water receives healing power from religious usage, what more effective religious usage is there than the acknowledgement of the living God? Here too we observe the devil's zeal in hostility to the things of God, in that he also practises baptism among his own. Yet how unlike. Does the unclean make clean, the destroyer set free, the condemned acquit? If so, he will be pulling down his own work, and washing away the sins he himself inspires. I have set down these remarks for a testimony against those who reject the faith, in that they give too little credence to things of God, though they do give credit to the attempts to reproduce them made by God's enemy. Also, apart from this, without any sacred significance, unclean spirits do settle upon waters, pretending to reproduce that primordial resting of the divine Spirit upon them :I as witness shady springs and all sorts of unfrequented streams, pools in bathing-places, and channels or storage-tanks in houses, and those wells called snatching-wells-obviously they snatch by the violent action of a malignant spirit: for people also use words like 'esetic' and 'lymphatic' and 'hydrophobic' of those whom water has drowned, or has vexed with madness or fear. Why have I referred to such angelum dei sanctum aquis in salutem hominis temperandis adesse, cum angelus mali profanus commercium eiusdem elementi 30 in perniciem hominis frequentet. angelum aquis intervenire si novum videtur, exemplum futuri praecucurrit. piscinam Bethsaidam angelus interveniens commovebat. observabant qui valetudinem querebantur. nam si quis praevenerat descendere illuc, queri post lavacrum desinebat. figura ista medicinae 35 corporalis spiritalem medicinam canebat, ex forma qua semper carnalia in figura spiritalium antecedunt. [6] proficiente itaque in omnibus gratia dei plus aquis et angelo accessit: qui vitia corporis remediabant nunc spiritum medentur, qui temporalem opera- bantur salutem nunc aeternam reformant, qui unum semel canebat B: praedicabat T. ex T: ea B. figuram Rfd., forsan recte. 36-7 itaque in omnibus T: ita qui nominibus B. 40 restituetur B, manifesto errore. effigie Gel.: effigiem BT. non quod in aquis . consequamur B. sic enim B. antepraecursor B: antecursor T. abolitione T: ablutione B. matters? So that no one should think it over-difficult for God's holy angel to be present to set waters in motion for man's salva- tion, when an unholy angel of the evil one often does business with that same element with a view to man's perdition. If it is thought strange that an angel should do things to waters, there has already occurred a precedent of that which was to be. An angel used to do things when he moved the Pool of Bethsaida.1 Those who complained of ill-health used to watch out for him, for anyone who got down there before the others, after washing had no further reason to complain. This example of bodily healing was prophetic of spiritual healing, by the general rule that carnal things always come first as examples of things spiritual. Therefore, as the grace of God makes general progress, both the waters and the angel have obtained more power. They used to remedy bodily defects, but now heal the spirit: they used to administer temporal health, but now restore the health which is eternal: they used to set free one man, once a year, but now every day save nations, destroying death by the washing away of sins. Evidently as the guilt is removed the penalty also is taken away. In this way is man being restored to God, to the likeness of him who had aforetime been in God's image2 - the image had its actuality in the <man God> formed, the likeness <becomes actual> in eternity - for there is given back to him that spirit of God which of old he had received of God's breathing, but after wards had lost through sin. 6 Not that the Holy Spirit is given to us in the water, but that in
the water we are made clean by the action of the angel, and made
ready for the Holy Spirit. Here also a type had come first. As
John was our Lord's forerunner, preparing his ways,3 so also the
angel, the mediator of baptism, makes the ways straight for the
Holy Spirit who is to come next. He does so by that cancelling
of sins which is granted in response to faith signed and sealed in
the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. For if in three wit-
1 Cf. John 5. 4 sqq.
2 Cf. Gen. 1. 26.
3 Cf. Matt. 3. 3; Mark 1. 2; Luke 3. 4.
tribus testibus stabit omne verbum, dei quarto magis donum ? habemus benedictione eosdem arbitros fidei quos et sponsores salutis. sufficit ad fiduciam spei nostrae etiam numerus nominum 10 divinorum. cum autem sub tribus et testatio fidei et sponsio salutis pigneretur, necessario adicitur ecclesiae mentio, quoniam ubi tres, id est pater et filius et spiritus sanctus; ibi ecclesia quae CAP. 7. [1] Exinde egressi de lavacro perungimur beriedicta unctione de
pristina disciplina qua ungui oleo de cornu in sacerdotium solebant, ex quo Aaron a Moyse unctus est. unde christus dicitur a chrismate quod est unctio, quae <et> domino nomen accom- 5 modavit, facta spiritalis quia spiritu unctus est a deo patre: sicut in Actis, Collecti sunt enim vero in ista civitate adversus sanctum filium tuum quem unxisti. [2] sic et in nobis carnaliter currit unctio sed spiritaliter proficit, quomodo et ipsius baptismi carnalis actus quod in aqua mergimur, spiritalis effectus quod delictis liberamur. CAP. 8. [1] Dehinc manus imponitur per benedictionem advocans et
invitans spiritum sanctum. sane humano ingenio licebit spiritum in aquam arcessere et concorporationem eorum accommodatis desuper manibus alio spiritu tantae claritatis animare, deo autem 5 in suo organo non licebit per manus sanctas sublimitatem modulari spiritalem? [2] sed est hoc quoque de veteri sacramento quo nepotes suos ex Ioseph, Ephrem et Manassem, Iacob [capiti- bus] impositis et intermutatis manibus benedixit, et quidem ita habebimus benedictione T: habemus benedictionem B: <per> bene- dictionem Gel.; <de> benedictione Brf.: sed vix usus fuerat. 11 pignerentur B. necessariora dicitur T. christus dicitur B [Levit. 4.3.5]: christiani dicti T. et add. Brf. ex Isid. Hisp. Etym, vii. 2. 3. vero B: om. T.: vere Gel. [cf Actt. 4. 27 e)p' a)lhqei/aj] ipsius Gel.: spiritus ipsius B: spiritus T. 8-9 ita transversim B: ira avertuit T. nesses every word shall be established,1 how much more shall
the gift of God? By the benediction we have the same mediators
of faith as we have sureties of salvation. That number of the
divine names of itself suffices for the confidence of our hope.
Yet because it is under the charge of three that profession of faith
and promise of salvation are in pledge, there is a necessary addi-
tion, the mention of the Church: because where there are the
three, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, there is the
Church, which is a body of three.2
7 After that we come up from the washing and are anointed
with the blessed unction, following that ancient practice by which,
ever since Aaron was anointed by Moses,3 there was a custom of
anointing them for priesthood with oil out of a horn. That is
why <the high priest> is called a christ,4 from 'chrism' which is
<the Greek for> 'anointing': and from this also our Lord obtained
his title, though it had become a spiritual anointing, in that he
was anointed with the Spirit by God the Father: and so <it says>
are immersed in water, but a spiritual effect, that we are set free
from sins.
8 Next follows the imposition of the hand in benediction,
inviting and welcoming the Holy Spirit. Human ingenuity has
been permitted to summon spirit to combine with water, and by
application of a man's hands over the result of their union to
animate it with another spirit of excellent clarity: and shall not
God be permitted, in an organ of his own, by the use of holy
hands to play a tune of spiritual sublimity? But this too is in-
volved in that ancient sacred act in which Jacob blessed his
grandsons, Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, by placing his
hands interchanged upon their heads,6 turned transversely upon
1 Cf. Deut. 19. 15; Matt. 18. 16; 2 Cor. 13. 1.
2 Cf. Matt. 18. 20; 1 John 5. 7, 8.
3 Cf. Exod. 30. 30; Lev. 8. 12. 4 Lev. 4. 3, 5 LXX.
5 Acts 4. 27. 6 Cf. Gen. 48. 14.
transversim obliquatis in se ut Christum deformantes iam tunc 10 portenderent benedictionem in Christo futuram. [3] tunc ille sanctissimus spiritus super emundata et benedicta corpora libens a patre descendit superque baptismi aquas tanquam pristinam sedem recognoscens conquiescit: columbae figura delapsus in dominum ut natura spiritus sancti declararetur per animal 15 simplicitatis et innocentiae, quod etiam corporaliter ipso felle careat columba. [4] ideoque Estote, inquit, simplices ut columbae: ne hoc quidem sine argumento praecedentis figurae : quemad- modum enim post aquas diluvii quibus iniquitas antiqua purgata est, post baptismum ut ita dixerim mundi, pacem caelestis irae 20 praeco columba terris adnuntiavit dimissa ex arca et cum olea reversa - quod signum etiam ad nationes pacis praetenditur eadem dispositione spiritalis effectus terrae, id est carni nostrae, emergenti de lavacro post vetera delicta columba sancti spiritus advolat pacem dei adferens, emissa de caelis ubi ecclesia est 25 arcae figura. [5] 'sed mundus rursus deliquit, quo male comparetur baptismus diluvio.' itaque igni destinatur, sicut et homo cum post baptismum delicta restaurat: ut hoc quoque in signum admoni- CAP. 9. [1] Quot igitur patrocinia naturae, quot privilegia gratiae, quot
sollemnia disciplinae, figurae praestructiones praedicationes, religionem aquae ordinaverunt. primum quidem, cum populus de Aegypto [libere] expeditus vim regis Aegypti per aquam trans- 5 gressus evadit, ipsum regem cum totis copiis aqua extinguit. quae figura manifestior in baptismi Sacramento? liberantur de Christum libri et editores: mallem crucem scripsisse. deformantes Gel.: deformantis BT. 10 in Christo T: in Christum B. 12 superque T: super B. 14 declaretur T forsan recte. 20 praeco om. T. 21 ad T: apud B. pacis T: paci B. 25 arcae figura T: arca figurata B. deliquit B: delinquit T. 26 baptismum T Brf. cum T: qui B. quot (ter) Gel.: quod TB. praedicationes Kroy.: praedicationis T: precationes B. themselves in such a manner as to make the shape of Christ,1 and
at that early date to prefigure the blessing that was to be in Christ.
At this point that most holy Spirit willingly comes down from
the Father upon bodies cleansed and blessed, and comes to rest
upon the waters of baptism as though revisiting his primal
dwelling-place. He came down upon our Lord in the form of a
dove,2 and thus the nature of the Holy Spirit was clearly revealed
in a creature of simplicity and innocence, since even physically
the dove is without gall: which is why he says, Be ye simple, like
doves
.3 And this too has the support of a type which had preceded:
for as, after those waters of the Flood, by which the ancient
iniquity was cleansed away, after the baptism (so to express it)
of the world, a dove as herald announced to the earth peace from
the wrath of heaven, having been sent forth of the ark and having
returned with an olive-leaf4 - and towards the heathen too this
is held out as a sign of peace - by the same <divine> ordinance of
spiritual effectiveness the dove who is the Holy Spirit is sent forth
from heaven, where the Church is which is the type of the ark,
and flies down bringing God's peace to the earth which is our
flesh, as it comes up from the washing after <the removal of> its
ancient sins. 'But', <you object,> 'the world sinned once more,
so that this equating of baptism with the flood is not valid.'
<The world sinned>, and so is appointed for the fire, as also a
man is when he renews his sins after baptism: so that this also
needs to be accepted as a sign and a warning to us.
9 See how many then are the advocacies of nature, the special
provisions of grace, the customary observances of conduct, the
types, the preparations in act or word, which have laid down the
rule for the sacred use of water. The first, that when the people
<of Israel> are set free from bondage in Egypt and by passing
through the water are escaping the violence of the Egyptian
king,5 the king himself with all his forces is destroyed by water.
This is a type made abundantly clear in the sacred act of baptism:
1 Perhaps read 'a cross'. 2 Cf. Matt. 3. 16; Mark 1. 10; Luke 3. 22; John 1. 32. 3 Matt. 10. 16. 4 Cf. Gen. 8. 10,11. 5 Cf. Exod. 14. 28. saeculo nationes per aquam scilicet, et diabolum dominatorem pristinum in aqua oppressum derelinquunt. [2] item aqua de amaritudinis vitio in suum commodum suavitatis Mosei ligno 10 remediatur. lignum illud erat Christus venenatae et amarae retro naturae venas in saluberrimam aquam, baptismi scilicet, ex sese remedians. [3] haec est aqua quae de comite petra populo profluebat: si enim petra Christus, sine dubio aqua in Christo baptismum videmus benedici. quanta aquae gratia penes deum et 15 Christum eius ad baptismi confirmationem. [4] nunquam sine aqua Christus : siquidem et ipse aqua tinguitur, prima rudimenta potestatis suae vocatus ad nuptias aqua auspicatur, cum sermonem facit sitientes ad aquam suam invitat sempiternam, cum de agape docet aquae calicem parvo oblatum inter opera dilectionis 20 probat: ad puteum vires resumit, super aquam incedit, libenter transfretat, aquam discentibus ministrat. perseverat testimonium venit - sciunt Pilati manus : cum vulneratur aqua de latere CAP. 10. [1] Diximus quantum mediocritati nostrae licuit de universis
quae baptismi religionem instruunt. nunc ad reliquum statum eius aeque ut potero progrediar de quaestiunculis quibusdam. baptismus a Ioanne denuntiatus iam tunc habuit quaestionem ab 5 ipso quidem domino propositam ad pharisaeos, caelestisne is baptismus esset an veto terrenus: de quo illi non valuerunt 13-14 quaero an scribendum aquam. . .baptismi. 19 parvo scribebam [Matt. 10. 42 e#na tw~n mikrw~n tou&twn]: patri BT: pauperi I mean that the gentiles are set free from this present world by means of water, and leave behind, drowned in the water, their ancient tyrant the devil. Secondly, water is healed of the blemish of bitterness, hand restored to its own sweet usefulness, by the tree Moses throws in:1 and that tree was Christ, who from with- 5 Cf. John 4. 14; 7. 38. 6 Cf. Matt. 10. 42. constanter respondere, utpote non intelligentes quia nec credentes. [2] nos quidem quantula fide sumus tantulo et intellectu possumus aestimare divinum quidem eum baptismum fuisse, mandatu 10 tamen non et potestate, quod et Ioannem a domino missum legi- mus in hoc munus, ceterum humanum condicione. nihil enim caeleste praestabat, sed caelestibus praeministrabat, paenitentiae scilicet praepositus quae est in hominis voluntate. [3] denique legis doctores et pharisaei, qui credere noluerunt, nec paententiam 15 inire voluerunt. quodsi paenitentia humanum est et baptismus ipsius eiusdem condicionis fuerit necesse est: aut daret et spiritum sanctum et remissionem peccatorum si caelestis fuisset. sed neque peccata dimittit neque spiritum indulget nisi solus deus. [4] etiam ipse dominus nisi ipse prius ascenderet ad patrem aliter 20 negavit spiritum descensurum. ita quod dominos nondum conferebat servus utique praestare non posset. adeo postea in Actin Apostolorum invenimus [quoniam] qui Ioannis baptismum habebant spiritum accepisse sanctum, quem ne auditu quidem noverant. [5] ergo non erat caeleste quod caelestia non exhibebat, 25 cum ipsum quod caeleste in Ioanne fuerat, spiritus prophetiae, post totius spiritus in dominum translationem usque adeo defecerit ut quem praedicaverat, quem advenientem designaverat, postmodum an ipse esset miserit sciscitatum. agebatur itaque baptismus paenitentiae quasi candidatus remissionis et sanctificarionis in 30 Christo subsecuturae. [6] nam quod legimus, Praedicabat baptismum paenitentiae in remissionem peccatorum, in futuram remissionem quidem T: porro B. tantulo et intellectu possumus B: tantulum et 11 conditione T ut semper, sed hic forsan recte. 13 voluntate T: potestate B. 15 inire voluerunt T: agere B: egere Lat. 16 conditionis T. 17 peccatorum T: delictorum B. 18 peccatum B. 20 ita quod T: id quod B. 22 quoniam om. T. 23 spiritum accepisse sanctum T: non accepissent spiritum sanctum B: non accepisse spiritum sanctum Brf., sed vix opus erat. 29 candidatus B: candidate T: candidatae Brf., forsan recte. 30 legimus om. B. 31 delictorum B. Concerning this those people lacked the courage to answer with assurance: they were void of understanding, because void of faith.1 We however, with all the little faith we have, and with understanding in proportion, are able to work it out that that baptism was divine - in commission, I mean, not by any power <of its own> : because we find it written that it was the Lord by birth and upbringing. He discharged no heavenly function, but did service preparatory to heavenly things: he was set in authority over repentance,3 and this is in a man's power, for in fact the doctors of the law, and the pharisees, refused to believe, and likewise refused to repent.4 But if repentance is a human act, then the baptism of repentance must have been of the same sort: else, if it had been heavenly, it would also have given the Holy Spirit, and the remission of sins. But sins are not forgiven, or the Spirit granted, except by God alone. Also our Lord himself said that the Spirit would not come down until he himself should first ascend to the Father.5 Thus what his Lord was not yet con- ferring, the servant could have had no power to provide. So we find later on, in the Acts of the Apostles, that some people who had the baptism of John <needed to> receive the Holy Spirit,6 whom they had never known of even by hearsay. It follows that that was not heavenly which did not display heavenly character- istics: and in John himself that very thing which was heavenly, the Spirit of prophecy, did after the transference of the whole Spirit to our Lord to such an extent fail that after a while John sent to enquire whether that one whom he had preached, and had singled out when he came, was really he.7 What was intended then was a baptism of repentance, as a kind of applicant for the remission and sanctification which in Christ was soon to follow. For that which we read, He preached a baptism of repentance for the remission of sins,8 was an announcement made in view of a re- mission which was to be: for repentance comes first, and enuntiatum est, siquidem paenitentia antecedit, remissio sequitur, et hoc est viam praeparare: qui autem praeparat non idem ipse perficit sed alii perficiendum procurat. [7] ipse profitetur sua non 35 esse caelestia sed Christi dicendo, Qui de terra est terrena loquitur, qui de supernis venit super omnes est: item soli se paenitentiae tinguere, venturum mox qui tingueret in spiritu et igni: scilicet quia vera et stabilis fides spiritu tinguitur in salutem, simulata autem et infirma igni tinguitur in iudicium. CAP. 11. [1] 'Sed ecce', inquiunt, 'venit dominus et non tinxit: legimus
enim, Et tamen Iesus non ipse tinguebat verum discipuli eius.' quasi revera ipsum suis manibus tincturum Ioannes praedicasset. [2] non utique sic intelligendum est, sed simpliciter dictum more 5 communi, sicut est verbi gratia 'imperator proposuit edictum' aut 'praefectus fustibus cecidit'. numquid ipse proponit aut ne quo alio putes : quia nec extat alias nisi postea Christi, qui perficit Gel.: perfecit B: perfecisse T [sed in medio hoc verbo archetypi folia spiritu scribebam: aqua libri et editores. Iesus T: is B, om. ipse. in quem libri et edd.: suspicor scribendum fuisse in quam rem. ad patrem ascenderat B: a patre descenderat T (manu secunda). apostolis struxerat T: apostoli struxerant B. ne quo alio putes Brf.: ne quod aliud [vel alio] putes T: ne qui alio putet B. remission follows, and this is the meaning of preparing the way.
But one who prepares a thing does not himself perform it, but
provides for its performance by someone else. John himself
admits that the heavenly things are not his but Christ's, when he
says, He that is of the earth speaketh earthly things: he that bath come
from above is above all men
.1 Also he said that he was baptizing
solely for repentance, and that one would soon come who would
baptize in the Spirit and in fire:2 because a true and steadfast faith
is baptized with the Spirit3 unto salvation, but a feigned and
feeble faith is baptized with fire unto judgement.
11 'But look,' they say, 'our Lord did come, and did not
baptize: for we see it written, Howbeit Jesus himself baptized not,
but his disciples
.'4 But, you know, John had never preached that
Jesus would baptize with his own hands, nor need we so under
stand it, but as spoken in an ordinary and general way, like, for
example, 'The emperor has posted up an edict', or 'The governor
beat him with rods'. There is no question of the emperor himself
posting up the edict, or the governor himself doing the beating.
We regularly say that a person does a thing, when it is done for
him by an agent. So we shall have to take He shall baptize you5
as meaning, 'Through him or unto him you will be baptized'.
Nor is there any call for certain persons to be concerned because
he did not himself baptize. For unto whom could he baptize?
Unto repentance? Then what need had he of. a forerunner?
Unto remission of sins? But he granted that with a word.6 Unto
himself? But in humility he used to keep himself hidden. Unto
the Holy Spirit? But he had not yet ascended to the Father.7
Unto the Church? But he had not yet furnished it with apostles.
Consequently it was his disciples who baptized, though as ser-
vants like John the forerunner, with the same baptism as John's,
lest you should suppose it were with some other. For no other
exists except Christ's, which came later: and this at that juncture
1 John 3. 31. 2 Cf. Matt. 3. 11 ; Luke 3. 16, etc. 3 The manuscript says, 'with water': but 'with the Spirit' is perhaps what was meant. 4 John 4. 2. 5 Matt. 3. 11. 6 Cf. Matt. 9. 2, etc. 7 cf John 16. 7. tunc utique a discentibus dari non poterat utpote nondum adimpleta gloria domini nec instructa efficacia lavacri per passionem et resurrectionem, quia nec mors nostra dissolvi posset 20 nisi domini passione nec vita restitui sine resurrectione ipsius. CAP. 12. [1] Cum vero praescribitur nemini sine baptismo competere
salutem, ex illa maxime pronuntiatione domini qui ait, Nisi natus ex aqua quis erit non habebit vitam, suboriuntur scrupulosi immo temerarii retractatus quorundam quomodo ex ista praescriptione 5 [praestructione] apostolis salus competat quos tinctos non in- veniamus in domino praeter Paulum: [2] immo cum Paulus solus ex illis baptismum Christi induerit, aut praeiudicatum esse de cetero- rum periculo qui careant aqua Christi ut praescriptio salva sit, aut rescindi praescriptionem si etiam et non tinctis salus statuta est. 10 audivi, domino teste, eiusmodi, ne qui me tam perditum existimet ut ultro excogitem libidine stili quae aliis scrupulum incutiant. [3] et nunc illis ut potero respondebo qui negant apostolos tinctos. nam si [humanum] Ioannis baptismum impetrarant, domini cur desiderabant, quatenus unum baptismum definierat ipse dominus 15 dicens Petro perfundi volenti, Qui semel lavit non habet necesse rursum, quod utique non tincto non omnino dixisset? et haec est probatio exerta adversus illos qui adimunt apostolis etiam Ioannis baptismum, ut destruant aquae sacramentum. [4] an credibile videri potest in eis personis viam tunc domino non prae- 20 paratam, id est baptismum Ioannis, quae ad viam domini per totum orbem aperiendam destinabantur? ipse dominos nullius paenitentiae debitor tinctus est: peccatoribus non fuit necesse? 20 surrectione B (forsan recte). si etiam et T: et om. B. 10 teste in eiusmodi B: testemur eiusmodi T. quis B. 11 excogitem Oeh.: excogite*t T: excogitet B. libidine Urs.: libidinem BT. incutiant B: initiat T: fortasse iniciant Brf. impetrarant Brf.: impetrant T: inierant B. domini cur Brf.: dni cu 20 baptismo Brf. (sed vix opus erat). could certainly not have been conferred by the disciples, because
our Lord's glory was not yet complete,1 nor the efficacy of the
washing as yet ensured by his passion and resurrection : for neither
could our death be annulled except by our Lord's passion, nor
our life restored apart from his resurrection.
12 Now there is a standing rule that without baptism no man
can obtain salvation. It derives in particular from that <well
known> pronouncement of our Lord, who says, Except a man be
born of water he cannot have life
.2 Hence arise certain persons'
over-precise or even audacious discussions as to how, in view of
that standing rule, the apostles can have obtained salvation, when
we observe that none of them except Paul were baptized in our
Lord: in fact, since Paul is the only one from among them who
has put on the baptism of Christ,3 either we have the case pre-
judged (they say) concerning those others' peril who are without
Christ's baptism, so that the standing rule may be safe: or else,
if salvation is appointed even for these unbaptized, the general
rule is repealed. God is my witness that I have heard such
<remarks>, that no one may suppose me so low-minded as to
invent of my own, by the licence of my pen, thoughts calculated to strike others with doubt. So now I shall answer, as well as I can, those who say the apostles had not been baptized. If they had obtained John's baptism, what need had they of our Lord's? Our Lord himself had set the limit of one baptism by saying to Peter when he asked to be thoroughly washed, He who has once bathed has no need to do it again:4 and this he would certainly not have said to one unbaptized. This also is an express argument against those who deprive the apostles even of John's baptism, hoping to abolish the sacrament of the water. Nor can it be thought credible that the way for the Lord, meaning John's baptism, had not already been prepared in those persons who were being appointed to open up the way of the Lord throughout the whole world. Our Lord was baptized, though he owed no debt to repentance:5 did not sinners need to be? That other quod ergo alii tincti non sint, non iam comites Christi sed aemuli fidei, legis doctores et pharisaei. [5] unde et suggeritur, cum ad- 25 versantes domino tingui noluerint, eos qui dominum sequebantur tinctos fuisse nec cum aemulis [suis] sapuisse, maxime quando dominus cui adhaerebant testimonio Ioannem extulisset, Nemo, dicens, maior inter natos feminarum Ioanne baptizatore. [6] alii plane satis coacte iniciunt tunc apostolos baptismi vicem implesse cum in 30 navicula fluctibus mergerentur: ipsum quoque Petrum [per] mare ingredientem satis mersum. ut opinor autem aliud est aspergi vel intercipi violentia maris, aliud tingui disciplina religionis. [7] ceterum navicula illa figuram ecclesiae praeferebat quod in mari, id est in saeculo, fluctibus id est persecutionibus et temptationibus 35 inquietetur, domino per patientiam velut dormiente donec oratio- nibus sanctorum in ultimis suscitatus compescat saeculum et tranquillitatem suis reddat. [8] nunc sive tincti quoquo modo fuerunt sive illoti perseveraverunt ut et illud dictum domini de uno lavacro sub Petri persona ad nos tantummodo spectet, de 40 salute tamen apostolorum satis temerarium est aestimare: quia illis vel primae adlectionis et exinde individuae familiaritatis praerogativa compendium baptismi conferre posset, cum illum opinor sequebantur [illum] qui credenti cuique salutem pollice- batur: Fides tua te, aiebat, salvum fecit, et, Remittuntur tibi 45 peccata, credenti utique nec tamen tincto. [9] id si apostolis defuit nescio quorum fides tuta sit. uno verbo domini suscitatus teloneum dereliquit, patrem et navem et artem qua vitam sustentabat sunt, non tamen B. aemulae T. fecit et B: faciet T. remittentur B (falso). tuta sit Brf.: tua sit T: om. B. a teloneo T. persons were not baptized - these were not, you see, Christ's companions, but enemies of the faith, doctors of the law, and pharisees : from which also we may argue that as our Lord's adversaries refused to be baptized, those who followed the Lord must have been baptized, and cannot have thought as his enemies did, especially when the Lord on whom they were attending had testified to John's high importance when he said, Among those born of women there is none greater than John the Baptist.1 Others make the obviously far-fetched suggestion that the apostles under went a substitute for baptism on that occasion when in the little ship they were aspersed with the waves:2 also that Peter himself, when he walked upon the sea, was well-enough dipped.3 But it is one thing, I imagine, to be aspersed, or to be cut off by the violence of the sea, and quite another to be baptized by the rule of religion. Also that little ship presented a type of the Church, because on the sea, which means this present world, it is being tossed about by the waves, which means persecutions and tempta- tions, while our Lord in his long-suffering is as it were asleep,4 until at the last times he is awakened by the prayers of the saints5 to calm the world and restore tranquillity to his own. As things are, whether they were baptized, and in whatever manner, or whether they continued unwashed - and in that case that saying of our Lord with reference to one washing,6 while addressed to Peter, will have in view us and not him - to make guesses about the apostles' salvation is more than rash: because on them the prerogative, at least, of their original promotion, and thereafter of inseparable companionship, might be understood to confer a by-passing of baptism, since they were attendant upon him who promised salvation to every one that believed: Thy faith, he used to say, hath saved thee,7 and, Thy sins are being forgiven thee,8 when the man believed but yet was not baptized. If the apostles lacked that, I wonder whose faith is secure. At one word of our Lord one of them was roused up and left his customs-house:9 another abandoned his father and his ship and the trade by which he was 2 Cf. Matt. 8. 24, etc. 3 Cf. Matt. 14. 29. deseruit, [qui] patris exsequias despexit, summum illud domini praeceptum, Qui patrem aut matrem mihi praeposuerit non est CAP. 13. [1] Hinc ergo scelestissimi illi provocantes quaestiones, Adeo,
dicunt, baptismus non est necessarius quibus fides satis est: nam et Abraham nullius aquae nisi fidei Sacramento deo placuisse. 5 praevalent. [2] fuerit salus retro per fidem nudam ante domini passionem et resurrectionem: at ubi fides aucta est, credentibus in nativitatem passionem resurrectionemque eius addita est ampliato sacramento obsignatio baptismi, vestimentum quodam- modo fidei quae retro erat nuda, nec potest iam sine sua <salvare> 10 lege. [3] lex enim tinguendi imposita est, et forma praescripta: Ite, inquit, docete nationes tinguentes eas in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti. huic legi collata definitio illa, Nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et spiritu sancto non introibit in regno caelorum, obstrinxit fidem ad baptismi necessitatem. itaque omnes exinde 15 credentes tinguebantur. [4] tunc et Paulus ubi credidit tunc tinctus est: et hoc est quod ei dominus in illa plaga orbationis prae- ceperat; Exsurge, dicens, et introi in Damascum: illic tibi demonstrabitur quid debeas agere, scilicet tingui, quod solum ei deerat. alioquin satin didicerat atque crediderat Nazarenum esse CAP. 14. [1] Sed et de ipso apostolo revolvunt, quod dixerit, Non enim
me ad tinguendum Christus misit, quasi hoc argumento baptismus
48 qui om. T. despexit B: perspexit T. illud T: illius B. 49 praeposuerit T: praetulerit B. 13: 1 hic B. provocant B.
placuisse T: placuit B Brf. credentibus T: credendi B. addita est ampliato Brf.: addita est ampliatio B: addito et ampliato T. potest iam B: potentiam habuit T. salvare addendum suspicabar. 11 nomine T: nomen B. 13 introibit in regno T: intrabit in regnum B. 15 tunc (altera vice) om. B Refoulé. 16 ei T: et B. orationis T. 17 in om. B. 19 dederat T. 14: 2 baptismum T.
making his living:1 another disregarded his father's burial,2 and
fulfilled, even before he had heard it, that supreme commandment
of our Lord, Any man who prefers his father or his mother to me is
not worthy of me.3
13 In view of this those thorough-going scoundrels, raisers of
unnecessary questions, continue: 'Therefore those for whom
faith is enough have no need of baptism: for Abraham also
pleased God, with no sacrament of water, but only of faith.'
But in all matters later instances are conclusive, and things that
follow have greater validity than those which have gone before.
Let us suppose that formerly, before our Lord's passion and
resurrection, salvation was by faith unattired: yet now that the
faith has been enlarged, for those who believe in his nativity
when he said, Arise and go into Damascus: there it shall be shown to
thee what thou must do
:7 namely, be baptized, for this alone did he
lack. Apart from that, he had well enough learned and believed
that the Nazarene is the Lord, the Son of God.8
14 Moreover they have something to say about the apostle
himself, claiming that he said, For Christ sent me not to baptize,9 as
adimatur. cur ergo tint Gaium et Crispum et Stephanae domum? quanquam etsi non eum miserat Christus ad tinguen- 5 dum, attamen aliis apostolis praeceperat tinguere. [2] verum haec pro condicione tunc temporis ad Corinthios scripta sunt, quoniam schismata inter illos et dissensiones movebantur dum alius Paulo se deputet, alius Apollo. propter quod pacificus apostolus, ne sibi omnia defendere videretur, non ad tinguenduxn se missum ait 10 sed ad praedicandum. nam et prius est praedicare, posterius tinguere si prius praedicatum. puto autem licuit et tinguere cui CAP. 15. [1] Nescio si quid amplius ad controversiam baptismi ventilatur.
sane retexam quod supra omisi, ne imminentes sensus videar interscindere. unus omnino baptismus est nobis tam ex domini evangelio quam et apostoli litteris, quoniam unus deus et unum 5 baptisma et una ecclesia in caelis. [2] sed circa haereticos sane quae cus- todiendum sit digne quis retractet. ad nos enim editum est: haere- tici autem nullum consortium habent nostrae disciplinae, quos extraneos utique testatur ipsa ademptio communicationis. non debeo in illis cognoscere quod mihi est praeceptum, quia non 10 idem deus est nobis et illis, nec unus Christus, id est idem: ergo nec baptismus unus, quia non idem. quem cum rite non habeant sine dubio non habent, nec capit numerare quod non habetur: ita nec possunt accipere, quia non habent. sed de isto plenius iam nobis in Graeco digestum est. [3] semel ergo lavacrum ergo T: enim B. cum Stephanae domum (sic) T. si T: sed B. licuit et tinguere cui om. T. interscindere T: intercidere B. unum.baptismum T. quam ex B. et unum baptisma om. T Brf. sed om. T. digne quis B: dignius qui T. edictum T. non idem deus B: nec deus unus T. 9-10 ergo T: ideoque B. baptismum unum T. quem B: quod T. ab his verbis digestum est, usque ad cap. 17. 5 in asia presbites in archetypo codicis T post cap. 10. 6 non idem ipse per- transposita fuerant. though this were an argument for abolishing baptism. Why then did he baptize Gaius and Crispus, and the household of Stephanas?1 baptizing, he had for all that instructed the other apostles to
baptize.2 This, however, was written to the Corinthians in view
of the circumstances of that time, because schisms and disagree-
ments were being set in motion among them, while one person
ranged himself with Paul, another with Apollos.3 On this
account the apostle, a lover of peace, so as not to seem to claim
everything for himself, said he was not sent to baptize but to
preach. For preaching comes first, baptizing later, when preach
ing has preceded. But I suppose one who had permission to
preach had also permission to baptize.
15 I know not if another matter besides is being worked up into
a controversy about baptism. I shall in any event take up again
a thing I previously left out, that I may not appear to be deliber-
ately omitting themes which will shortly demand attention. We
have one baptism, and one only, on the evidence both of our
Lord's gospel4 and of the apostle's letter, <where he says> that
there is one God and one baptism, and one Church <which is>
in heaven.5 Certainly we have justification for discussing what
practice should be observed in respect of heretics. For it was to
us the announcement was made: whereas heretics have no part
or lot in our regulations: the very fact of their being deprived of
fellowship6 bears witness that they are outsiders. It is no duty of
mine to take cognizance in them of a precept enjoined upon me:
they have not the same God as we have, nor have they the one,
that is the same, Christ: consequently they have not the one,
because they have not the same, baptism. As they have it not in
proper form, there is no doubt that they have it not at all, and
there is no possibility of enumerating a thing which is not in any
one's possession. Also they cannot have it given them, since
they have it not <to give>. But I have already treated of this
more fully in the Greek. So then, we enter into the bath once
1 Cf. 1 Cor. 1. 14, 16. 2 Cf. Matt. 28. 19. 3 Cf. 1 Cor. 1. 12.
4 Cf. Matt. 28. 19; John 13. 10. 5 Cf. Eph. 4. 4, 5.
6 Or perhaps, 'the very fact of our refusal to discuss matters with them'.
15 inimus, semel delicta abluuntur, quia ea iterari non oportet. ceterum Israel Iudaeus quotidie lavat quia quotidie inquinatur. quod ne in nobis quoque factitaretur propterea de uno lavacro definitum est. felix aqua quae semel abluit, quae ludibrio pec- catoribus non est, quae non adsiduitate sordium infecta rursus CAP. 16. [1] Est quidem nobis etiam secundum lavacrum, unum et ipsum,
sanguinis scilicet, de quo dominos Habeo, inquit, baptismo tingui, cum iam tinctus fuisset. venerat enim per aquam et sanguinem, sicut Ioannes scripsit, ut aqua tingueretur sanguine glori- 5 ficaretur. [2] proinde nos faceret aqua vocatos sanguine electos hos duos baptismos de vulnere percussi lateris emisit, quia qui in sanguinem eius crederent aqua lavarentur, qui aqua lavissent et sanguine oporterent. hic est baptismus qui lavacrum et non acceptum repraesentat et perditum reddit. CAP. 17. [1] Superest ad concludendam materiolam de observatione
quoque dandi et accipiendi baptismi commonefacere. dandi dehinc presbyteri et diaconi, non tamen sine episcopi auctoritate, 5 propter ecclesiae honorem quo salvo salva pax est. [2] alioquin etiam laicis ius est: 'quod enim ex aequo accipitur ex aequo dari potest; nisi episcopi iam aut presbyteri aut diaconi vocabuntur discentes domini: id est, ut sermo non debet abscondi ab ullo, proinde et baptismus segue dei census ab omnibus exerceri 10 potest'. sed quanto magis laicis disciplina verecundiae et modestiae incumbit cum ea [quae] maioribus competat, ne sibi adsumant [dicatum] episcopi ofFicium. episcopates aemulatio quos diluit inquinat B: non diluit s; inquinata T: non diluit quos abluit sed inquinat solita sua felicitate tentaverat Brf. 7-8 et sanguine oporterent Brf.: etiam sanguinem portarent B: et sanguine porterent (sic) T: forsitan legere possis et sanguinem potarent. summum om. B. si T: om. B. 6-10 quod enim. . .exerceri potest interlocutori assignabam. 7 vocabuntur scribebam: vocabantur T: vocantur B. id est ut om. B: quapropter editores plerique, periodo post discentes facta, postea domini sermo incipiunt. quae om. B. competant T. dicatum om. T: dicatum episcopis Urs. only, once only are our sins washed away, because these ought not to be committed a second time. Jewish Israel, on the other hand, washes every day, because every day it is defiled. That this 1 Luke 12. 50. 2 Cf. 1 John 5. 6. 3 Cf. Matt. 22. 14. 4 Cf. John 19. 34. schismatum mater est. omnia licere dixit sanctissimus apostolus sed non omnia expedire. [3] sufficit scilicet in necessitatibus [ut] 15 utaris sicubi aut loci aut temporis aut personae condicio compellit: tunc enim constantia succurrentis excipitur cum urguetur circumstantia periclitantis, quoniam reus erit perditi hominis si supersederit praestare quod libere potuit. [4] petulantia autem mulieris quae usurpavit docere utique non etiam tinguendi ius 20 sibi rapiet, nisi si quae nova bestia venerit similis pristinae, ut quemadmodum illa baptismum auferebat ita aliqua per se [eum] conferat. [5] quod si quae Acta Pauli, quae perperam scripta sunt, exemplum Theclae ad licentiam mulierum docendi tinguendique defendant, sciant in Asia presbyterum qui eam scripturam 25 construxit, quasi titulo Pauli de suo cumulans, convictum atque confessum id se amore Pauli fecisse loco decessisse. quam enim fidei proximum videtur ut is docendi et tinguendi daret feminae potestatem qui ne discere quidem constanter mulieri permisit? Taceant, inquit, et domi viros suos consulant. CAP. 18. [1] Ceterum baptismum non temere credendum esse sciunt
quorum officium est. Omni petenti te dato, suum habet titulum proprie ad eleemosynam pertinentem. immo illud potius respiciendum, Nolite dare sanctum canibus et porcis proicere 5 margaritam vestram, et, Manus ne facile imposueritis nec hamartiis alienis communicaveritis. [2] quodsi quia Philippus tam facile tinxit eunuchum, recogitemus manifestam et exertam dignationem domini intercessisse. spiritus Philippo praeceperat 14-15 Sufficiat . . . ut utaris B. 15 accipitur T. urguetur T: urget B (nescio an recte). rapiet T: pariet B. novae bestiae venerint similes T. quod si et quae sequuntur, ita pungebam. Acta om. B. exemplum TBmg: scriptum B. pro credendum quaero an scribendum sit cedendum. quorum officium est B: quod scriptum est T. proprie T: perinde B. margaritas vestras T (correctoris fortasse manu). imposueritis, etc. T: imposueris ne participes aliena delicta B. quodsi quia T: si B. who must not arrogate to themselves the function of the bishop. Opposition to the episcopate is the mother of schisms. The holy apostle has said that all things are lawful but all things are not expedient:1 which means it is enough that you should use <this right> in emergencies, if ever conditions of place or time or person demand it. The boldness of a rescuer is acceptable when he is constrained to it by the necessities of the man in peril, since he will be guilty of a man's destruction if he forbears to give the woman who assumed the right to teach is evidently not going to
arrogate to her the right to baptize as well - unless perhaps some
new serpent appears, like that original one,2 so that as that woman
abolished baptism, some other should of her own authority confer
it. But if certain Acts of Paul, which are falsely so named,
claim the example of Thecla for allowing women to teach and
to baptize, let men know that in Asia the presbyter who com-
piled that document, thinking to add of his own to Paul's
reputation, was found out, and though he professed he had
done it for love of Paul, was deposed from his position. How
could we believe that Paul should give a female power to teach
and to baptize, when he did not allow a woman even to learn by
her own right? Let them keep silence, he says, and ask their husbands
at home.3
18 Moreover, that baptism ought not to be rashly granted, is
known to those whose function it is. Give to everyone that asketh
thee
, has its own application, which strictly pertains to alms-
giving. One ought indeed rather to have regard to that other
<injunction>, Give not that which is holy to the dogs, neither cast ye
your pearl before swine
,4 and, Do not lay on hands easily, nor become
sharers in others' sins
.5 But if <it is> because Philip so easily
baptized the eunuch,6 let us reflect that the Lord's manifest and
express good pleasure had intervened. The Spirit had told Philip
to turn towards that road. The eunuch himself was found not
in eam viam tendere: spado et ipse inventus est non otiosus nec 10 qui subito tingui concupisceret, sed ad templum orandi gratia profectus scripturae divinae impressus: sic oportebat deprehendi cui ultro deus apostolum miserat, [ad] quem rursus spiritus ut se curriculo eunuchi adiungeret iussit: scriptura ipsius fidei | occurrit
in tempore, exhortatus adsumitur, dominos ostenditur, fides non 15 moratur, aqua non expectatur, apostolus perfecto negotio abripitur. [3] sed et Paulus revera cito tinctus est: cito enim co- gnoverat Simon hospes vas eum esse electionis constitutum. dei 9 tendere T: praetendere B. 12 ad omittendum censuerat Gel. 13 post ipsius fidei deficit codex T. 16 tinctus Pam.: unctus B. 19 ac Gel.: a B. 22 ingeri Gel.: integri B: qui Gel.: quid B. 23 proventu Gel.: proventum B. 26 quid Gel.: quod B. 29 petenti Gel.: petendi B: petentibus Brf. (sed vix opus fuerat). 32 vagationem B: vacationem Urs.: cf. 1 Tim. 5. 13, ubi et otiosas eas viduas esse invenias et domos circuire solitas. uninterested, nor as one who of a sudden desired to be baptized: he had set out from home to the Temple to pray, and was intent upon divine scripture. Such is the position a man needed to be found in to whom God, without being asked, had sent an apostle, whom the Spirit a second time ordered to join himself to the eunuch's chariot. The scripture meets the man's faith just when it is wanted: <Philip> is invited and received into the chariot: the Lord is made known, faith makes no delay, water is there to hand: his task completed, the apostle is caught away. It is true that Paul also was speedily baptized:1 for Simon, his host, speedily knew that he had been appointed a vessel of election. God's good pleasure sends as herald its own privileges : any request can both disappoint and be disappointed: It follows that defer- ment of baptism is more profitable, in accordance with each person's character and attitude, and even age: and especially so as regards children. For what need is there, if there really is no need, for even their sponsors to be brought into peril, seeing they may possibly themselves fail of their promises by death, or be deceived by the subsequent development of an evil disposition? It is true our Lord says, Forbid them not to come to me.2 So let them come, when they are growing up, when they are learning, when they are being taught what they are coming to : let them be made Christians when they have become competent to know Christ. Why should innocent infancy come with haste to the remission of sins? Shall we take less cautious action in this than we take in worldly matters? Shall one who is not trusted with earthly pro- perty be entrusted with heavenly? Let them first learn how to ask for salvation, so that you may be seen to have given to one that asketh.3 With no less reason ought the unmarried also to be delayed until they either marry or are firmly established in continence: until then, temptation lies in wait for them, for virgins because they are ripe for it, and for widows because of their wandering about.4 All who understand what a burden 4 Or perhaps, by the alteration of one letter, 'because they have too little to do'. si qui pondus intellegant baptismi magis timebunt consecutionem CAP. 19. [1] Diem baptismo sollemniorem pascha praestat, cum et passio
domini in qua tinguimur adimpleta est. nec incongruenter ad figuram interpretabitur quod cum ultimum pascha dominus esset acturus, missis discipulis ad praeparandum, Convenietis, inquit, 5 hominem aquam baiulantem: paschae celebrandae locum de signo aquae ostendit. [2] exinde pentecoste ordinandis lavacris laetissimum spatium est, quo et domini resurrectio inter discipulos frequentata est et gratia spiritus sancti dedicata et spes adventus domini subostensa, quod tunc in caelos recuperato eo angeli ad apostolos 10 dixerunt sic venturum quemadmodum et in caelos conscendit, utique in pentecoste. sedenim Hieremias cum dicit, Et congre- gabo illos ab extremis terrae in die festo paschae, diem significat et pentecostes, qui est proprie dies festus. [3] ceterum omnis dies domini est: omnis hora, omne tempus habile baptismo. si de 15 sollemnitate interest, de gratia nihil refert. CAP. 20. [1] Ingressuros baptismum orationibus crebris, ieiuniis et
geniculationibus et pervigiliis orare oportet, et cum confessione omnium retro delictorum, ut exponant etiam baptismum Ioannis: Tinguebantur, inquit, confitentes delicta sua - nobis 5 gratulandum est si non publice confitemur iniquitates aut tur- pitudines nostras - simul enim de pristinis satisfacimus conflicta- tione carnis et spiritus, et subsecuturis temptationibus munimenta praestruimus. Vigilate et orate, inquit, ne incidatis in tempta- tionem. [2] et ideo credo temptati sunt quoniam obdormierunt, ut in die festo paschae ita pungebam: cf. Hierem. 38. 7 LXX. 20: 4-6 nobis.nostras: parenthesim indicabam.
non retinendum videtur: nunc Iunius: om. Heraldus. munimenta Gel.: monimenta B. baptism is will have more fear of obtaining it than of its postpone-
ment. Faith unimpaired has no doubt of its salvation.
19 The Passover provides the day of most solemnity for baptism,
for then was accomplished our Lord's passion, and into it we are
baptized. With fairly good reason we could interpret it as a
type, that when our Lord was about to keep his last Passover he
sent his disciples to make ready, with the remark, Ye shall meet
a man carrying water
.1 By the sign of water he indicated the place
for the Passover to be celebrated. After that, Pentecost is a most
auspicious period for arranging baptisms, for during it our Lord's
resurrection was several times made known among the disciples,
and the grace of the Holy Spirit first given,2 and the hope of our
Lord's coming made evident: because it was at that time, when
he had been received back into heaven, that angels said to the
apostles that he would so come in like manner as he had also
20 Those who are at the point of entering upon baptism ought
to pray, with frequent prayers, fastings, bendings of the knee,
and all-night vigils, along with the confession of all their former,
sins, so as to make a copy of the baptism of John: They were
baptized
, it says, confessing their sins5 (to us it is a cause for thank
fulness that we do not in public confess our sins against others or
against ourselves) : for <thus> we at once make amends for things
past by afliiction of flesh and spirit, and build up defences against
the temptations that are to follow. Watch and pray, he says, that
ye fall not into temptation
.6 And so, I think, they were tempted,
because they fell asleep,7 and in consequence deserted their Lord
1 Cf. Mark 14. 13; Luke 22. 10 2 Cf. Acts 2. 4. 10 adprehensum dominum destituerint et qui cum eo perstiterit et gladio sit usus ter etiam negaverit. nam et praecesserat dictum, neminem intemptatum regna caelestia consecuturum. [3] ipsum dominum post lavacrum statim temptationes circumsteterunt quadraginta diebus ieiuniis functum. 'ergo et nos' dicet aliquis, 15 'a lavacro potius ieiunare oportet.' et quis enim prohibet, nisi necessitas gaudii gratulatio salutis? [4] sed dominus, quantulum aestimo, de figura Israelis exprobrationem in ipsum retorsit. namque populus mare transgressus et in solitudinem translatus, per quadraginta annos illic cum divinis copiis aleretur, nihilo- 20 minus ventris et gulae meminerat quam dei. deinde dominos, post aquam segregates in deserta quadraginta dierum ieiunia emensus, ostendit non pane vivere hominem dei sed dei verbo, temptationesque plenitudini et immoderantiae ventris appositas abstinentia elidi. [5] igitur benedicti, quos gratia dei expectat, cum 25 de illo sanctissimo lavacro novi natalis ascenditis et primas manus apud matrem cum fratribus aperitis, petite de patre, petite de domino, peculia gratiae, distributiones charismatum subiacere. Petite et accipietis, inquit. quaesistis enim et invenistis, pulsastis et apertum est vobis. tantum oro, ut cum petitis etiam perstiterit Gel.: praestitit B. et Gel.: est B. solitudinem Iun.: solitudine B. 27 gratiae Oeh.: gratis B. when he was arrested,1 and even the one who had continued with him and had used his sword,2 also thrice denied him. For the saying had already gone forth, that no one untempted would attain to heavenly kingdoms.3 Our Lord himself after baptism was immediately beset with temptations when he had fasted forty days.4 'In that case', some one will say, 'we also ought by pre- ference to fast after baptism.' And who is stopping you - except the need for joy, for thankfulness for salvation? But our Lord, in my small judgement, was using Israel as a type, so as to cast crossed the sea and had been brought over into the wilderness, though nourished there with supplies from God for forty years, none the less had more remembrance of their belly and their gullet than of God:5 whereupon our Lord, having gone apart into desert places after his baptism,6 filled up the measure of forty days' fasting, and thereby proved that the man of God is not kept alive by bread but by the word of God, and that the temptations attached to repletion and excess of gluttony are struck down by abstinence. Therefore, you blessed ones, for whom the grace of God is waiting, when you come up from that most sacred washing of the new birth, and when for the first time you spread out your hands with your brethren in your mother's house, ask of your Father, ask of your Lord, that special grants of grace and appor- tionments of spiritual gifts be yours.8 Ask, he says, and ye shall receive.9 So now, you have sought, and have found: you have knocked, and it has been opened to you. This only I pray, that as you ask you also have in mind Tertullian, a sinner.

Source: http://www.testielettronici.org/Cristianesimo/Padri%20e%20Dottori%20della%20Chiesa/Tertullianus/TestiTertullianus/De%20baptismo.pdf

lehighvalleybeekeepers.org

Apiary Inspection Summary for Eastern Pennsylvania During the summer of 2010 I was apiary inspector in 11 Eastern Pennsylvania counties (Bucks, Carbon, Chester, Delaware, Lehigh, Monroe, Montgomery, Northampton, Philadelphia, Pike and Wayne). Due to the large number of counties covered, the State mandated that priority to given to beekeepers with a previous history of American Foul Brood (A

Individual variation and the acceptance of average bioequivalence.1993.pdf

SciAnNews Individual Variation and the Acceptance of Average Bioequivalence by Laszlo Endrenyi & Miklos Schulz Drug Information Journal, Vol. 27, pp. 195-201, 1993 0092-8615/93 Printed in the USA. All rights reserved. Copyright (C) 1993 Drug Information Association Inc INDIVIDUAL VARIATION AND THE ACCEPTANCE OF AVERAGE BIOEQUIVALENCE Department of Pharmacology, University of Toro

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