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Microsoft word - ethyleneglycol_ introduction.doc
Ethylene glycol, 1,2-ethandiol, with the molecular formula HOCH2CH2OH, is the
simplest diol. It was first prepared by Wurtz in 1859 by the treatment of 1,2-dibromo
ethane with silver acetate to give ethylene glycol di-acetate, which was then hydrolyzed
Ethylene glycol was first used industrially in place of glycerol during World War
I as an intermediate for explosives (ethylene glycol dinitrate) but has since developed into
2. Uses of Ethylene Glycol
The following is a summary of the major uses of ethylene glycol:
A major use of ethylene glycol is as antifreeze for internal combustion engines.
Solutions containing ethylene glycol have excellent heat transfer properties and higher
boiling points than pure water. Accordingly, there is an increasing tendency to use glycol
solutions as a year-round coolant. Ethylene glycol solutions are also used as industrial
Mixtures of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are used for defrosting and de-
icing aircraft and preventing the formation of frost and ice on wings and fuselages of
aircraft while on the ground. Ethylene glycol-based formulations are also used to de-ice
Asphalt-emulsion paints are protected by the addition of ethylene glycol against
freezing, which would break the emulsion. Carbon dioxide pressurized fire extinguishers
and sprinkler systems often contain ethylene glycol to prevent freezing.
Ordinary dynamite will freeze at low temperatures and cannot then be detonated.
Ethylene glycol dinitrate, which is an explosive itself, is mixed with dynamite to depress
its freezing point and make it safer to handle in cold weather. Mixtures of glycerol and
ethylene glycol are nitrated in the presence of sulfuric acid to form solutions of
nitroglycerin in ethylene glycol dinitrate, which are added to dynamite in amounts
The use of ethylene glycol for fibers is becoming the most important consumer of
glycol worldwide. These fibers, marketed commercially under various trade names like
Dacron, Fortel, Kodel, Terylene etc are made by the polymerization of ethylene glycol
with bishydroxyethyl terephthalate (Bis HET).
Polyester resins made from maleic and phthalic anhydrides, ethylene glycol, and
vinyl-type monomers have important applications in the low-pressure lamination of glass
fibers, asbestos, cloth and paper. Polyester-fiberglass laminates are used in the
manufacture of furniture, automobile bodies, boat hulls, suitcases and aircraft parts.
Alkyd-type resins are produced by the reaction of ethylene glycol with a dibasic
acid such as o
-phthalic, maleic or fumaric acid. These resins are used to modify synthetic
rubbers, in adhesives, and for other applications. Alkyds made from ethylene glycol and
phthalic anhydride are used with similar resins based on other polyhydric alcohols, such
as glycerol or pentaerythritol in the manufacture of surface coatings.
Resin esters made with ethylene glycol are used as plasticizers in adhesives,
Ethylene glycol is used in hydraulic, brake and shock absorber fluids to help
dissolve inhibitors, prevent swelling of rubber, and inhibit foam formation. Hydrolubes,
which are water-based mixtures of polyalkylene glycols and presses and die casting
machines, and in airplane hydraulic systems because of their relatively low viscosity at
high pressure. An added advantage of primary importance is that these hydrolubes are
Ethylene glycol is used as a solvent and suspending medium for ammonium
perborate, which is the conductor in almost all electrolytic capacitors. Ethylene glycol,
which is of high purity (iron and chloride free), is used because it has a low vapor
pressure, is non-corrosive to aluminum and has excellent electrical properties.
An important use for ethylene glycol is as the intermediate for the manufacture of
glyoxal, the corresponding dialdehyde. Glyoxal is used to treat polyester fabrics to make
Ethylene glycol is used to stabilize water dispersions of urea-formaldehyde and
melamine-formaldehyde from gel formation and viscosity changes. It is used as a
humectant for textile fibers, paper, leather and adhesives and helps make the products
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT GUIDANCE NOTE NO: 35/99 REVISION NO: 10 This Guidance Notice only applies to vessels that were operating commercially on 30 June 2013 Fishing Vessels (class 3C and 3B) less than 8 metres in Measured Length Operating Outside Declared Sheltered Waters Limits. Requirements for Safety Equipment and Operator Qualifications Class 3C (within 30 nauti
Detection of Infectious Outbreaks in Hospitals through Incremental Clustering Timothy Langford1, Christophe Giraud-Carrier1, and John Magee21 Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK2 Department of Medicine, Microbiology and Public Health Laboratory, Cardiff, UK Abstract. This paper highlights the shortcomings of current systems of noso- comial infection control