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Microsoft word - eer1101.doc

International Journal of Environmental Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, 1-4 Copyright 2012, All rights reserved Research Publishing Group Effect of application of amoxicillin and ampicillin on the
commercial parameters of silkworm Bombyx Mori. L
M. D. Anandakumar1*, Ann Sandhya Michael2 and S. R. Ananthanarayana2
1 Department of Biochemistry, Adarsh Institute of research & postgraduate studies, SRN Adarsh college, 2 Department of Life Sciences/Sericulture, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi, Bangalore-560 056, India. * Corresponding author E-mail- anupol2004@yahoo.co.in Abstract
The study regarding the effect of Amoxicillin and Ampicillin was conducted on two races of silkworm namely, Bivoltine (NB4D2) and Crossbreed (PM x NB4D2). The silkworm larvae of both races were reared up to third instar without any treatment. Later the Amoxicillin and Ampicillin 0.02% and 0.04% were prepared, smeared uniformly on the mulberry leaves and fed to the silkworm larvae. Distilled water sprayed leaves were fed to a batch of silkworm, which served as a control. The commercial parameters like, cocoon weight, pupal weight, shell weight, shell ratio percentage, silk filament length, raw silk percentage, renditta and denier were studied and indicated an increasing trend among the cocoons produced through antibiotic smeared leaves. Keywords: antibiotic, amoxicillin, ampicillin, silkworm hybrid, cocoon characters.
Introduction:
Sericulture essentially being an agro based cottage industry (Jolly, 1987) is known for its capacity to generate high income and employment. Silkworm is affected by several diseases and at time causes heavy crop losses. Various chemicals (antibiotics) are extensively employed to prevent the attack of diseases to the silkworm thereby, help in, increasing the productivity of silk. The beneficial action of the antibiotics has been attributed to the oral feeding of them along with mulberry leaves, which reduced significantly the incidence of flacherie and grasserie (Radha, et al, 1980, Anonymous, 1980). Of all constrains, silkworm diseases being the most important that inflect heavy loss to the crop. The ‘Flacherie’ disease caused by bacteria is most important, causing serious damage to the Muga silkworm (Chakravorty, et al., 2007). Concentration is an important factor in antibiotics, as low levels they have no effect and as the concentration is increased to cytotoxic levels, as direct relationship exists between the concentration of the antibiotics in the medium and the anti-microbial effect until a level of maximum effectiveness is reached. Dutta et al., (2010) reported in vitro use of streptomycin sulfate @1000 ppm and successfully controlled bacterial diseases in Muga silkworm up to 52.37%. Besides streptomycin sulfate feeding of antibiotics from brushing till spinning was found to be on par with feeding only in the fifth instar (Annonymous, 1975). Antibiotics are also known to improve the growth of larvae and to certain extent help in the improvement of silk production (Verma & Kushwata, 1970, Krishnaswamy, et al., 1979, Radha, et al., 1980). The antibiotics such as Penicillin, Ampicillin and Streptomycin were found to be effective in reducing the mortality of silkworms by 23-25% without affecting the cocoon parameters. The antibiotics such as Streptomycin, Gentamycin, Cloxacillin and Kanamycin supplemented through mulberry leaves resulted in significant reduction in the occurrence of both grasserie and flacherie diseases. The oral supplementation of the antibiotics Amoxycillin to fourth instar larvae resulted significant increase in larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio, filament length and Denier. Tetracycline, Streptomycin and Penicillin treatments increased the larval weight of silkworm. The single cocoon weight and single shell weight was higher in Tetracycline, Abrimox and Cloxacillin treatments. Oral administration of Streptomycin and Penicillin increased the meterage of reelable silk. Fecundity was found to be more after Campicillin, Cloxacillin and Chloramphenicol treatments (Santha, P. C. et al., 2007). However the current literature is limited with regard to the application of antibiotics on the silkworm varieties. Hence the research work aims at the application of antibiotics namely Amoxillin and Ampicillin on the commercial parameters of silkworm varieties taken up for the present investigation. Materials and methods:
The silkworm races namely Bivoltine (NB4D2) and crossbreed (PM x NB4D2) were selected for the present experiment. Antibiotic treatment: The Amoxicillin and Ampicillin were procured from a standard drug company and 0.02%
and 0.04% concentration solution of them were prepared in distilled water. The antibiotic solution was
uniformly smeared on the mulberry leaves. Only distilled water smeared on the leaf was fed to a batch of
Anandakumar et al./ International Journal of Environmental Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, 1-4 silkworm, which served as a control. The smeared leaves were dried under shade and fed to the silkworm larvae. Amoxicillin 0.02% and 0.04% were smeared on the leaves and given as the first feed to the silkworm larvae immediately after III and IV moult. Similarly, Ampicillin 0.02% and 0.04% were smeared on the leaves and given to a separate batch of silkworm larvae as the first feed immediately after III and IV moult. The larvae were reared in the laboratory following the procedure of Krishnaswamy (1978). Five batches of 50  10 larvae each were maintained separately, out of which, one batch served as control and remaining batches for different treatments. All these sets were maintained in triplicate. The treatment was carried out twice, one just after III moult & another after IV moult. The larvae were given mulberry leaves four times a day till they reached spinning. The spinning larvae were transferred to the mountage for the production of cocoons. Later the cocoons were harvested from the mountage and commercial parameters of cocoons such as cocoon weight, pupal weight, shell weight, shell ratio percentage, Silk filament length, Raw silk percentage, Renditta and Denier were studied and calculated following the method of Sonwalker (1991). The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis of t-test (Khan and Khanum, 1994) Results and discussion:
The results of present investigation are presented in tables 1 and 2. The cocoon weight was found to be
significantly higher for the treated set that is amoxicillin 0.02% in case of bivoltine variety, as well as in cross
breed variety when compared with the respective controls. Among the treated samples, treated with 0.02%
ampicillin recorded least cocoon weight, for both the varieties. These results are in close correlation with Verma
and Khuswaha (1971) and Tayade, et al., (1985). The shell weight was found to be significantly higher for the
treated batches that are in amoxicillin 0.04% in bivoltine and amoxicillin 0.02% in cross breed variety when
compared with respective controls. Among the treated samples, treated with 0.02% ampicillin recorded least
shell weight, for both the varieties. The total filament length, pupal weight and shell ratio% in the amoxicillin
treated sets in both the variety was found to be higher side compared with control. The denier was found to be
significantly higher in the control as well as in amoxicillin 0.04% treatment in bivoltine variety where as in
cross breed variety higher denier was found with in 0.02% treatment. In bivoltine and cross breed variety the
renditta was good in ampicillin 0.02% followed by ampicillin 0.04%, amoxicillin 0.04%, and amoxicillin 0.02%
and was poor in case of control. The raw silk percentage was to be significantly higher for the treated sets
especially with ampicillin 0.02% treatment in case of bivoltine variety, as well as in cross breed variety when
compared with respective controls. Among the treated samples the samples treated with amoxicillin 0.02% in
bivoltine variety was least and in cross breed variety amoxicillin 0.02% was least in treated samples. However
all the treated sets recorded higher raw silk percentage over control in both the varieties expect the treatment
amoxicillin 0.02% in case of cross breed variety. In the treated samples registered higher cocoon weights
especially with the amoxicillin treatment in both the varieties. The higher concentration of antibiotics resulted in
higher shell percentage in bivoltine variety, where as higher concentrations of antibiotics included lower shell
percentage in case of cross breed variety. The inhibitory potential of Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Chloramphenicol
and Tetracycline in different concentration has been reported positive (in vitro) against Bacillus coagulans, a
bacterium that cause silkworm disease (Savithri, et al., 2003a,b).
Table 1: Commercial parameters of Crossbreed variety (PM X NB4D2)
Particulars
AX- 0.02%
AX- 0.04%
AP- 0.02%
AP- 0.04%
Anandakumar et al./ International Journal of Environmental Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, 1-4 AX= Amoxicillin AP = Ampicillin

Table 2
: Commercial parameters of Bivoltine race (NB4D2)

AX= Amoxicillin AP = Ampicillin
Conclusion
The antibiotic treatment has significantly increased the raw silk percentage by diverting most of its assimilated
food towards silk protein synthesis. The prevention or management disease is a vital component for successful
rearing for higher yield and quality cocoons. Thus, application of antibiotics through leaf freshness technology
may through ray of hope in controlling diseases in silkworm indoor cultivation for bumper harvest and quality
cocoons. From the above study it is evident that the scope exists to improvise the silk output by supplementing
the silkworms with the selected and efficient antibiotics, so that the silk industry will be economically viable.
REFERENCES
Anonymous, (1975). Effect of antibiotics streptopencillil and strepmycin. Ann. Report (1974-75), CSR and TI, Anonymous, (1980). Effect of antibiotics on crop and incidence of loss due to disease Ann. Report 1979-80 Chakravorty, R., Das, R., Neog, K., Das, K. and Sahu, M. (2007). A diagnostic manual for diseases and pest of
Muga silkworm and their host plants. Published by CMER&TI, Central Silk Board, Lahdoigarh, Jorhat, Assam, 1-47. Dutta, P., Neog, K., Das, R., Das, K., Handique, P. K. and Chakravorty, R. (2010). Evaluation of some
botanicals, antibiotics, carbon source and carrier against the bacterial disease of Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis. Scrocologia, 50 (1), 113-122. Irfan, A. Khan., and Atiya Khanum, (1994). Fundamentals of Bio-statistics,Ukaaz publications, Hydrabad,India, Jolly, M. S. (1987). Appropriate Sericulture techniques. Published by Director, International centre of Training and Research in Tropical Sericulture, Mysore, India. Krishnaswamy, S. (1978). New technology of silkworm rearing, Bulletin No.2, CSR&TI, Mysore, India, 1-24. Krishnaswamy, S. (1979). Improved method of rearing young age (chawki) silkworms. Bulletin No.3, Central Sericultural and Training Institute, Mysore, 1-24. Radha, N. V., Natarajan, T., Muthukrishnan, T. S. and Oblisami, G. (1980). Effect of antibiotics of mulberry silkworm (ed. Muthukrishnanan, T. S. and Srirangaswamy, S. R.). Proc.Seric. Cymp. Coimbatore, 173-177. Anandakumar et al./ International Journal of Environmental Engineering Research, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012, 1-4 Santha, P. C., Bhargava, S. K., Sindagi, S. S. and Kamble, C. K. (2007). Bacterial flacherie of silkworm, Bombyx mori and its control by the application of antibiotics. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 10(1), 1-7 Savithri, G. and Murali Mohan, P. (2003a). Pathogenocity of the bacterium Bacillus coagulans in silkworm
Bombyx mori L. Indian J. Seric., 42 (1), 4-8. Savithri, G. and Murali Mohan, P. (2003b). In vitro screening of antibiotics against Bacillus coagulans. Indian J.
Sonwalker,T. N. (1991). Handbook of silk technology. Wiley Eastern limited. New Delhi. Tayade, D. S., Jawale, M. D. and Unchegoankar, D. K. (1984). Effect of antibiotics on the growth of silkworm Bombyx mori, L. Indian J. Seric., 2, 1-3. Verma, S. K. and Kushwaha, K. S. (1970). Comparative growth of the silkworm Bombyx mori L., BoloPolo, Lepedoptera, Bombycidae, reared on different mulberry varieties. Ind. J. Agric.Sci., 40(12), 1097-1107. Verma, S. K. and Kushwaha, K. S. (1971). Effect of tetracycline antibiotics on the growth of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, L. Indian J. Agric, Sci., 41, 1009-1017.

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