In 1791 Galvani who is the biologist of Bologna University discovered animal electricity from the phenomenon “muscle of flog is contracted by contact of metal”. And then in 1800 Volta who is the physicist in Italy found out the phenomenon “it generated voltage and could get continuously electricity that two different kind of metals were soaked into electrolyte” and invented famous Volta cell. This was the 1st cell that went out into the world. After that Davy and many other people carried out various experiments of electrolysis by using Volta cell. In 1831 Faraday found out the Faraday’s law and fundamental electrochemistry was established. Furthermore Daniel cell and another cells were developed and in 1868 Leclanche invented Leclanche cell that was the prototype of current dry cell. This cell was improved in active materials and structure, and still using in wide area as convenient and light weight primary source of On the other hand in 1859 Plante invented lead acid battery and here came rechargeable battery. This battery is different from previous primary batteries and has a merit of rechargeable. This fact, along with improvements to the electrical generator developed in 1866, allowed lead storage batteries to play a leading roll in electrical energy storage applications. And it was the start of storing of electric energy. Even now this battery used as starter power of car and many applications and is typical secondary battery as well known. Following of lead acid battery, in 1899 Jungner and in 1901 Edison and et al developed alkaline rechargeable battery using alkaline electrolyte. Jungner battery was using Nickel as a cathode and Cadmium as an anode. And Edison battery was using Nickel as a cathode and Iron as an anode. Since the materials for alkaline batteries were expensive in comparison with those for dry or lead storage batteries, their practical applications were severely limited. In recent years, however, Jungner ’s Nickel-Cadmium battery has undergone intensified development using improved materials and manufacturing techniques to achieve a superior level of performance. The first major basic improvement to the Nickel-Cadmium battery was the result of a new sintered plate invented by Shlecht and Ackermann in 1932. The conventional plate employed a system under which the active materials were packed into a metal container called a pocket or tube. With Ackermann ’s method, however, the active materials are placed inside a porous nickel electrode formed by sintering nickel powder. Through the use of these sintered pole plates, Nickel-Cadmium battery characteristics were significantly enhanced. In particular, there was a large improvement in the high-rate discharge characteristics and service life was dramatically increased. In 1947 Neumann realized sealed Nickel Cadmium rechargeable of charge discharge efficiency and cycle life. To clear battery. It made open the new field as consumer these problems lithium rechargeable battery using secondary battery because of it was controlled alloy anode was developed in 1980’s. We also demerits of secondary battery such as gas generation developed coin type manganese dioxide lithium and leakage during charge and discharge. rechargeable battery using lithium-aluminum alloy anode in 1989. It has been using for memory back up technology of sealed battery early and in 1961 we But development of battery for power supply to battery(brand name ; Cadnica) by our original portable applications that have big capacity and it technology. Cadnica battery has been adopted to can discharge at high load had gotten behind. In various cordless applications such as emergency 1989 cylindrical lithium secondary battery using light, radio control car or power tool and contributed lithium metal anode was made practical. But, it did to pioneer the small rechargeable market. With the not spread because there was safety issue on lithium development of a wide variety of cordless devices metal. To solve these issues, it was developed that utilizing CADNICA batteries, along with various lithium secondary battery (Lithium-ion battery) did signals and emergency lights that use these batteries not using Lithium metal but carbon material (cokes) as a reliable emergency power source, CADNICA absorbing lithium ion for anode in 1989. It dose not batteries are enjoying a wide application range that generate dendrite so it is safety and has good cycle A large variety of CADNICA batteries have been Lithium-ion battery is a new chemistry and using developed to meet a wide range of user needs, carbon material that can absorb lithium ion as an ranging from low current level uses like emergency anode, lithium and transition metal complex oxide as power sources for semiconductor memories to very a cathode and organic solvent dissolving lithium salt high power applications such as cordless drills, etc. as an electrolyte. The voltage is 3 times higher than Furthermore, in 1990 we had developed and that of nickel cadmium or nickel metal hydride and started to selling Nickel Metal Hydride battery to meet market requirement as high capacity in the We SANYO started to research and development of first of the world. Nickel Metal Hydride Lithium-ion battery from early and applied graphite rechargeable battery(brand name : Twicell) is one of anode for the patent. And we commercialized alkaline rechargeable battery using Nickel Oxide as cylindrical Lithium-ion battery that had flat a cathode and Hydrogen Absorbing Alloy as an anode. discharge characteristics came from graphite It make use of electrochemical reversible reaction technology in 1994, then we commercialized light that hydrogen absorb into and release from alloy. weight prismatic type using aluminum can as a Twicell is high performance battery that its capacity pioneer. As the result we could improve energy density greatly in the consumer rechargeable battery And then Lithium-ion battery was came. Using of field. Cylindrical type are mainly used for power Lithium metal as an anode can get maximum energy supply of camcorder or notebook PC and prismatic density in theory. In end of 1950’s it took up Lithium type for cellular phone. It could make portable for the project of military and space use battery for applications smaller and lighter. It is said that the first time and Thionyl Chloride Lithium primary Lithium-ion battery is very much suitable for potable On the other hand, in Japan carbon fluoride lithium History of battery can say in another words that is battery and manganese dioxide lithium battery were improvement of treatment and energy exchange commercialized respectively in 1973 and 1975. The efficiency. The role of battery become more important reactions of these batteries are out of previous as changing of generation, especially in the recent electrochemical theory and it is much significance situation of the rapid growth of electronics fields and that the reactions were made clear by cooperation of feature demands of energy battery seems to be more industrial and academic fields. After that Japanese companies and universities have the important role SANYO have three chemistry of battery that of Cadnica, Twicell and Lithium-ion and these battery After high energy Lithium primary battery was will improve still more then these battery will have developed it was expected more realization of lithium rechargeable battery and research and development were done more harder in all over the world. As the results, in 1979 lithium and transition metal complex oxide was find out for a cathode and in 1981 graphite cathode was find out. At those time basic technology of Lithium-ion battery was established. In the first stage of development lithium metal was investigated as an anode, but there are problems Gilbert (England)
Galvani (Italy)
Volta (Italy)
Faraday (England)
Daniell (England)
Armstrong (England)
Planté (France)
Siemens (Germany)
Leclanché (France)
Gassner (USA)
Jungner (Sweden)
Edison (USA)

Neumann (France)
secondary(rechargeable) batteries that can use repetitive by recharge and fuel cells that can continuously use if energy supply from outside. There are many kind of batteries. The role of all Following figure shows the grouping of main batteries is exchanging of energy. That is to say consumer batteries according to above mentioned battery is the device to exchange energy form rules. Within secondary batteries it is called that chemical of physical to electrical. The battery that acid secondary battery as using acid electrolyte use chemical reaction is called chemical battery and the battery that use physical change is called Table 1-2 and 1-3 shows summarization of performances for main commercialized chemical There are three types of chemical battery such as primary batteries that can only one time use, Mercuric Oxide Battery,Silver Oxide Battery, etc.
/year (intermittent)
3 5 years


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This is a summary of benefits for your Pharmacy Plan. The document will be used to reflect how your Pharmacy plan will be loaded (Pharmacy plan deductibles, out-of-pocket maximums, copays and annual maximums do not integrate with the employer medical program unless elected as part of the CIGNA Choice Fund product) CIGNA Healthcare Pharmacy Customer Worksheet Tektronix, Inc. CIGNA

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