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Bioscience Research, Bioscience Research, 8(1): 08-14, 2011
Research Article
Available online at www.isisn.org
ISISnet Publishers Print ISSN: 1811-9506
Antilipidemic activity of Coriandrum Sativum
S. Kousar*, N. Jahan, Khalil-ur-Rehman and S. Nosheen
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author

Myocardial infraction is a most common cause of death all over the world. The high level of blood
cholesterol is a big risk for heart diseases. The basic purpose of this research work was to
determine the antilipidemic activity of fresh leaves of coriandrum sativum against salbutamol
induced cardiac injury in rabbits. Salbutamol administered rabbits (50mg/kg) showed elevated
level of serum lipids (LDL-Cholesterol, Triglyceride) and decreased level of HDL-Cholesterol and
antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT). Both the pre- and post treatment of plant extract (100mg/kg)
for three weeks exert a significant antilipidemic effect against salbutamol-induced myocardial
infraction by lowering the level of serum LDL-Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Peroxidase and
increasing the level of HDL-Cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that
coriandrum sativum possess antilipidemic activity.

Key words: Coriandrum Sativum,
Coriander, Medicinal plants, Antilipidemic activity.
A large number of synthetic hypolipidemic technology has given too much comforts to drugs are available in market. Long term use mankind, but at the same time, it has suffered of these drugs cause serious side effects, and mankind into different diseases. Almighty these are costly. Plant contains a large Allah is the supreme curer Who furnished number of bioactive phytochemicals that are remedies for all maladies. The plants that are responsible for pharmacological action of used for the treatment of different diseases plants and used for development of drugs. are called “Medicinal plants” (Joshi 2000). A medicinal plant is any plant which, in antilipidemic effect and proved their efficacy in one or more of its organ, contains substance cardiovascular diseases (Jain et al., 2007, that can be used for therapeutic purpose or which is a precursor for synthesis of useful Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) is an drugs.Myocardial infarction is a major public umbelliferous annual plant of the parsley health problem which is the cause of high family, native to the eastern Mediterranean death rate (Sivakumar et al., 2007). The risk region and southern Europe and is found in factors for cardiovascular heart disease and many other parts of the world. It is valued for Myocardial Infarction are on the rise in the dry ripe fruits, called coriander seeds and also the fresh green leaves called cilantro. In developing countries, the occurance of The genus Coriandrum includes the cultivated heart diseases increases rapidly (Jain et al., plant C. sativum and the wild species C. 2007).High level of blood cholesterol is responsible for circulatory system disorder. Increase level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) thousands of years (Mathias 1994). Ancient is alarming for cardiovascular diseases, and Egyptians reported the first medicinal uses of their risk is increased many times (Grundy et Coriander. As a medicinal plant, coriander has been used as carminative, diuretic, stimulant, stomachic and analgestic (Chaudhry & Tariq, 2006) anti-inflammatory (Chithra and Then inderoll 100mg/kg was given for 5-7 Leelamma, 1997) and hypoglycemic (Waheed days after 24 hours. Blood sample was taken et al., 2006). The extracts and essential oil of daily. After experimental period rabbits were hypnotic activity (Emamghoreishi and Heidari- G4: Base line group: Plant extract
Coriander leaves showed stronger (100mg/kg) was given to rabbits for 3 weeks. antioxidant activity. Being as a source of At the end of experimental procedure blood natural antioxidant coriander can reduce the cardiac diseases. The aim of this research work is to determine the Antilipidemic activity G5: Curative group: Salbutamol was given
for two days to induce myocardial injury. Then plant extract 100mg/kg was given for 5-7 days after 24 hours. Blood sample was taken daily MATERIALS AND METHODS
to check curative effect. After experimental Plant Material: Coriandrum sativum (Fresh
Phytochemical analysis: Qualitative and
G6: Preventive group: In this plant extract
100 mg/kg was given to rabbits once a day at Coriandrum sativum was perform for the fixed time by oral gavage for 3 weeks at the estimation of Alkaloids, Saponins, Steroids and Tannins by using standard methods of Adam (1970), Harbone (1973) and Brain and myocardial injury for two consecutive days. After 48 hours blood samples were taken to illustrate preventive effect of Coriandrum Extract Preparation: 150 gm of fresh leaves
sativum. Heart beats of rabbits were also of Coriandrum sativum was weighted. Then checked during this experimental period. grinded leaves were macerated in solvent methanol for three days. Then filtered the Collection of blood samples: Blood sample
solution and solvent was evaporated. Then experimental period. The blood sample were collected in glass centrifuge tubes, then Materials and Chemicals: Salbutamol,
centrifuged it and serum were separated and stored in deep freezer till further biochemical Centrifuge tubes, Ephendroff tubes, Kits of Gross pathological studies: Immediately
after the sacrifice of animals, there different Animals: Eighteen rabbits weighing about
body parts were removed and analyzed under 1.00 to 1.25Kg were used as experimental Biochemical Assay
temperature with free access to food and The activity of lipidemic enzymes like LDL, water, and on standard conditions. Animals HDL Triglycerides in serum was determined Experimental Protocol
Tissue homogenate preparation: Rabbits
G1: Normal control group: Standard diet
were sacrificed at the end of experimental was provided to the normal control group. period. Hearts of the all rabbits were minced G2: Salbutamol Treated group: Salbutamol
phosphate buffer of pH 7.4.Homogenate was 50 mg/kg was given for two days. After two mixed, centrifuged and supernant was used for estimation of catalase and peroxidase and G3: Inderoll treated group: Salbutamol was
given for two days to induce myocardial injury. Quantitative estimation of Catalase :
Catalase level in the sample was estimated by giving salbutamol, inderoll was injected which following methods as described by Aebi and is the standard drug that decreased LDL level, the LDL-Cholesterol level come closer to the normal LDL level in rabbit i.e. (16mg/dl). The Quantitative estimation of Peroxidase:
LDL level (16mg/dl) in base line group to Peroxidase (POD) activity is measured by which only plant dose was given showed that using the method of Paglia and Valentine, Coriandrum sativum not increased LDL- salbutamol significantly (p<0.05) increased Quantitative estimation of Superoxide
the level of LDL-Cholesterol. Then five post dismutase (SOD): SOD activity was assayed
by using spectrophotometer NBT method as significantly decreased (19mg/dl) the elevated described by Kakkar et al., (1984). Statistical analysis
HDL-Cholesterol: There was a significant
All numerical data in text and figures showed (p<0.05) increase noted in the level of HDL- as the ± SD (standard deviation), means, Cholesterol in the serum of Curative group standard error, and significant ANOVA were (15.0mg/dl) as compared to the Salbutamol decreased to (13.0mg/dl). The level of HDL- Cholesterol in inderoll group increased significantly (p<0.05) (15.33mg/dl). The level determine the Antilipidemic activity of fresh of HDL-Cholesterol (13mg/dl) in base line leaves of coriandrum sativum against group showed that Coriandrum sativum itself has no effect on the HDL-Cholesterol level. salbutamol induced cardiac injury in rabbits. The level of HDL-Cholesterol in normal control Phytochemical analysis
Triglycerides:
induction of salbutamol significantly (p<0.05) The plant contains metabolities which are increased the triglyceride level (199.67mg/dl) grouped as Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Steroids, Saponins, Glycosides, Tannins and normal group (110mg/dl). In inderoll group the triglyceride level come closer to control triglyceride (110mg/dl) in base line group was close to control normal group (110mg/dl) while Flavonoids were 5%, Glycosides were showed that plant had no effect on triglyceride 16%, Alkaloid were 0.20 %, Steroids were in serum of rabbit. In curative group the level 11.13% while Tannins were 3.4% Coriandrum of triglycerides comes closer to the control normal group (128mg/dl) after giving plant Biochemical Assay
Curative effect: To determine the curative
effect of plant salbutamol was given for two Preventive effect: After three weeks of oral
days to induce myocardial injury. Then plant administration of plant dose, Salbutamol was extract (100mg/kg) was given for five days given to induce myocardial injury for two after 24 hours. Blood sample was taken daily samples were taken to illustrate preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum. The results LDL-Cholesterol: The results showed that
induction of salbutamol significantly (p<0.05) lowered the LDL-Cholesterol level (20mg/dl) raised the LDL-Cholesterol level (32mg/dl) and Triglyceride level (130mg/dl) compared to (16mg/dl). The inderoll group to which after Cholesterol level and Triglyceride level Table 1: Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of phytoconstituents of Coriandrum sativum
Constituents
Inference
Table 2: Curative effect of Coriander on Level of LDL-cholesterol in
Serum of different experimental groups
Days Control
Group Salbutamol
Inderoll Group
Base line
Curative Group
2 16.33±0.577 29.0±1.00 16.667±0.577 16.0±1.0 Table 3: Curative effect of Coriander on Level of HDL-cholesterol in
Serum of different experimental groups
Days Control
Group Salbutamol
Inderoll Group
Base line
Curative Group
2 15.0±1.0 14.8±1.528 13.50±1.0 15.3±0.577 13.13.67±1.0 3 Table 4: Curative effect of Coriander on Level of Triglyceride in
Serum of different experimental groups

Days Control
Salbutamol
Inderoll Group
Base line
Curative
increased significantly (p<0.05) to (29.3mg/dl) and (166 mg/dl) respectively. Whereas in significantly (p<0.05) decreased as compared to control normal group (0.428 units/mg of significant (p<0.05) increase noted in the level protein). In both curative and preventive group of HDL-Cholesterol (26mg/dl ) in Preventive the catalase level decreased (0.271 units/mg group as compared to the group to which only of protein), (0.277 units/mg of protein) when Salbutamol was given (23mg/dl ) that show compared to salbutamol treated group (0.332 that Coriandrum sativum increased HDL- units/mg of protein). In Base line group the Cholesterol level in serum of rabbit. (Table: 5). catalase level (0.450 units/mg of protein) close to control normal group (0.428units/mg Antioxidant Enzyme Assay
Natural antioxidant enzymes manufactured in Peroxidase (POD): Induction of salbutamol
against free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase, for two days significantly (p<0.05) increased glutathione reductase, catalase, thioredoxin the POD level (0.080 units/ mg of protein) as oxygenase and biliverdin reductase, are the units/ mg of protein). Both pre- and post- treatment of Coriandrum sativum showed a significantl (p<0.05) decrease in the Catalase: In Salbutamol group the level of
peroxidase level (0.0650 units/ mg of protein),
Table 5: Preventive antilipidemic effect of Coriander on different experimental groups
Enzymes Control
Salbutamol
Inderoll Group
Base line
Curative
Preventive
Triglycerides

Table 6: Effect of coriander on antioxidant enzyme (Catalase) on different experimental groups
Time/Min. Control
Salbutamol
Inderoll Group
Base line
Curative
Preventive
(0.0523 units/ mg of protein) when compared increased oxidative stress by catechol amines to salbutamol treated group (0.080 units/ mg (salbutamol). Oxidative stress causes damage of protein). Base line group showed POD level to myocardial membrane and lipids leak from (0.0047 units/ mg of protein) closer to control normal group (0.0040 units/ mg of protein) Fravin et al., (2004), whereas HDL cholesterol levels were significantly lower compared to control normal group animals which might be Superoxide dismutase (SOD): The results
due to the increased mobilization of LDL- showed that the induction of salbutamol for cholesterol from the blood into the myocardial two days significantly (p<0.05) decreased the membranes, resulting in abnormal cholesterol % inhibition of SOD (19 %) as compared to deposition in the myocardium. These findings control normal group (50 %). Pretreatment of are in accordance with an earlier reported plant showed significantly (p<0.05) higher (42 %) when compared to inderoll group (53 %) and salbutamol treated group. Post treatment In present study, the, curative group of rabbits indicated that Coriandrum sativum salbutamol treated group (19 %). The Base line group showed significantly (p<0.05) Triglycerides and increased HDL-Cholesterol level in serum of rabbit that was the indication salbutamol treated group (19 %) (Table: 8). of lowering cardiac disease by Coriandrum sativum. These results were confirmed by the Gross Pathological Analysis
results of Narayan (2005) who investigated effects of psyllium on cardiovascular disease. group, the weight of its heart tissue was greater than control normal group. Whereas the curative group to which first two days antioxidants and reduces the oxidative stress. Salbutamol and then plant dose was given showed that weights of its heart tissue was Whereas the Base line group shows that plant The result of Level of different enzymes in had not effect on the heart tissue of rabbit Preventive groups of rabbits showed that coriander in Preventive group decrease the LDL-Cholesterol level and triglycerides level DISCUSSION
but increase the HDL-Cholesterol level. These The significant (p<0.05) increase was results were confirmed by Karthikeyan et al., observed in the level of LDL-Cholesterol and (2007) who evaluate the preventive role of Cholesterol in salbutamol treated animals compared to control normal group which is in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury line with earlier report Sivakumar et al., (2007), and is an indication of myocardial injury. The level of LDL cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05) higher in salbutamol increased oxidative stress which confirmed by myocardial infarction induced rabbits, due to Table 7: Effect of coriander on antioxidant enzyme (Peroxidase) on different experimental groups
Time/Min. Control
Salbutamol
Inderoll Group
Base line
Curative
Preventive
3 0.0041 0.080 0.0730 0.0047 0.0650 0.0523
Table 8: Effect of coriander on antioxidant enzyme (Superoxide Dismutase)
on different experimental groups

Time/Min. Control
Salbutamol
Inderoll Group
Base line
Curative
Preventive

Table 9: Weights (in grams) of organs of different experimental groups of rabbits
Organs Control
SalbutamolG
Inderoll Group
Base Line
Curative
Preventive
the study of Gauthaman et al., (2006) that Brain KR and Turner J, 1975.The principle catalase and SOD level in both pre- and post- Bactericidal activity of black peeper, bay treatment showed that Coriandrum sativum leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral decreased the catalase and SOD level. The isolates. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci 19:214-218. Chithra V, Leelamma S, 1997. Hypolipidemic level close to control normal group which effect of Coriander seeds(Coriandrum sativum). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr 51:167- indicated that Coriandrum sativum alone not increase catalase level neither decrease. But the decrease in catalase level is not clearly understood. Whereas Coriandrum sativum in both pre- and post-treatment decreased the POD level which indicates antioxidant action against free radicals and confirmed by the Emamghoreishi, MHeidari-Hamedani G, 2006. Sedative-Hypnotic Activity of Extracts and (1999) that the formation of lipid peroxides Essential Oil of Coriander Seeds. Iran J declined whereas activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase) Farvin KHS., Anandan R, Kumar SHS, Shiny increased in rats treated by Coriander In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the Coriandrum sativum fresh leave extract after purification and suitable extraction method can become an 2006.Cardioprotective effect of Hibiscus REFERENCES
Aebi H and Berjmeyer HU, 1974. In method of Implications of recent clinical trials for the Adult Panel on Detection, Evaluation and products with hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic, antiathero-sclerotic Joshi SG, 2000. Medicinal plants. Oxford and Jain GC, Jhalani S, Agarwal S, and Jain K, 2007. Hypolipidemic and Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Leptadenia pyrotechnica Extract in Cholesterol Fed RabbitsAsian. J. Exp.Sci 21:112-115. Ahmad M, Vohra EA, 2007. Profile of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in Pakistan. Pakistan journal of Medical Sciences 23. Karthikeyan K, Bai BRS, Devaraj SN, 2007. poranthocyanidins on serum and heart tissue lipids in rats subjected to isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. Vascul Pharmacol 40:566-595. Kakkar P, Das B, Vishwanathan PN, 1984. A modified spectrophotometer assay of superoxide.Indian J. Biochem Biophys 21: 130-132. Mathias ME, 1994.Magic, myth and medicine. potential cardioprotective effects. Nutrition Noteworthy 7: 1-4. Paglia D and Valentine W, 1967. Study on quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte gluthathione POD. J. Lab. Clin. Med 17: 158-159. Jeyakumar R, Rajaprabhu D, Ganesan B, Anandan R, 2007. Antilipidemic effect of chitosan against experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 1:071-077. effect of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (Alliin) on mitochondrial dysfunction in normal and isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats: a histopathological study J. Pharm. Pharmacol 58: 617-623. Waheed A, Miana G.A, Ahmad S.I. and Khan M.A, 2006. Clinical investigation of hypoglycemic effect of Coriandrum sativum in type-2 (NIDDM) diabetic patients. Pakistan Journal of

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