Id-88: woody plant disease control guide for kentucky
C O O P E R A T I V E E X T E N S I O N S E R V I C E
U N I V E R S I T Y O F K E N T U C K Y • C O L L E G E O F A G R I C U L T U R E WOODY PLANT DISEASE CONTROL GUIDE FOR KENTUCKY by John Hartman, Mary Witt, Don Hershman, and Robert McNielCultural Practices to Prevent Disease
Good care of trees and shrubs prevents many nursery and
landscape problems. Because trees and shrubs live for manyyears, their susceptibility to disease is influenced not only bycurrent climatic and environmental conditions but also byconditions and care during previous years. Adverse growingconditions, maltreatment, and lack of care favor manydiseases. Many problems in nurseries and landscapeplantings can be avoided by selecting proper plant materials,creating good planting sites, avoiding unnecessary wound-ing, providing routine care (including fertilization and timelywatering and pruning), and using preventive disease andinsect control measures as needed.
Woody plants may be stressed or grow poorly for a
variety of reasons, some natural and some caused by people. In any case, these stressed plants are often susceptible todiseases that would otherwise not be a problem. Stresses areoften alleviated or moderated by proper plant care. SeveralUK Cooperative Extension publications, available from yourcounty Extension office, cover this topic. Nursery and Landscape Hygiene
Careless hygiene can ruin one’s investment in disease-
free plants and clean soil. Soil-borne pathogenic fungi,bacteria, and nematodes are carried into the nursery or
• Wash boots and hand tools along with mechanical
landscape and spread by footwear, implements, tools and
machines, moving surface water, blowing soil, and plants. • When roguing diseased plants or pruning diseased parts of
Nurseries are especially vulnerable to outbreaks of
plants, destroy or bury the discards.
contagious diseases, so take extra precautions. • Divert surface water into ditches or culverts to prevent its • Before planting, insist on clean stock. Do not order or accept
movement from one nursery block to another.
stock likely to be infected with nematodes, crown gallbacteria, or highly destructive soil-borne fungi such as
• Remember that irrigation water can carry pests and
Phytophthora, Thielaviopsis, or Verticillium.
pathogens. Select a clean source and keep it from becomingcontaminated. • Where practical, stabilize all open soil near the nursery and maintain windbreaks. Cover dirt roads with gravel or oil. • Allow no direct traffic from outdoor areas to indoor propagation areas. Clean footwear with a germicidal agent • Require equipment moving between nursery blocks to
such as LF-10 or Amphyl at entrances.
pass through a central area where soil is washed off. Equipment can be parked on a bed of coarse rock, and soil
• When collecting cuttings in the field, inspect stock plants
particles will be carried down through the stones. A steel
carefully and avoid any plants showing disease symptoms or
grating over a pit is an even better arrangement for a
• Disinfect tools regularly when pruning to control disease or
AG R I CU LTU R E • HO M E E CONO M I CS • 4 -H • D EV E LO P M E N T
when collecting cuttings. An easy, effective way to do so is to
at one end to the screw and at the other end to a hydraulic
swab the cutting blades with denatured alcohol (mix 7 parts
sprayer capable of building high pressures. The fungicide is
alcohol with 3 parts water). Chlorine bleach diluted 1:5 with
then pumped into the tree at high pressure. Only experienced
water is also effective. A vial or other pocket-sized container
professional arborists should use such apparatus.
will hold a cotton swab saturated with the disinfecting
The Elm Research Institute can provide information
solution. Rinse tools in water at the end of the day to remove
about controlling Dutch elm disease using a low pressure
corrosive bleach or rubber-softening alcohol.
system for injecting fungicide into elm trees. Thearrangement of a series of T-shaped nozzles connected to one
Using Fungicides and Bactericides
another with tubing is similar to the one used for the high
Most of the diseases listed in this publication do not
require annual or regular chemical treatments for control. Spraying Equipment. Small trees and shrubs can be
Exceptions include rose diseases and diseases of susceptible
sprayed with hand-pumped, bucket, hose-end, backpack, or
flowering crabapples. Consider routine chemical application
small power sprayers. Large trees can only be properly
for disease control only when the disease is a known threat
sprayed with large spraying machines. Such machines are
(has occurred in previous seasons, is present in nearby
expensive and are mainly owned by commercial arborists and
landscapes, is expected in your operation, or is so devastating
park and shade tree departments doing considerable tree
that routine prevention is essential) and when the plant being
•Hydraulic Sprayers apply sprays to tall trees in a so-called
Most fungicides and bactericides are protectants and
solid stream; that is, the material leaves the nozzle much as
must be on the plant before infection begins. Some fungicides
water issues from a fire hose. The stream, forced out under
are systemic types, however, and can eradicate new
great pressure, soon reaches a height, however, at which it
infections. Rainy, foggy weather favors most infections;
breaks into a mist and drifts onto leaves and stems.
therefore, apply protectant sprays before such weather
Smaller trees are sprayed with a hydraulic sprayer that
conditions occur. Extra sprays may be needed during wet
breaks the liquid into a fine mist as soon as it leaves the
years, and few or no sprays may be needed during warm, dry,
nozzle, giving rapid and complete coverage. Most hand-held
spray guns have nozzles that can be adjusted to accomplishboth types of spraying. Chemical Application •Mist Blowers (or air sprayers) use blasts of air to propel Methods and Equipment
droplets of pesticide, in contrast to hydraulic sprayers whichuse water as the vehicle for the pesticide. With such
Good injecting or spraying equipment and techniques
machines, it is possible to cover more trees in a shorter time
are essential for successful control of diseases.
at far less cost. Using highly concentrated materials not only
Injections and Implants. Techniques and materials
speeds up refilling time, but sharply reduces runoff or drip
have been developed for controlling specific diseases in
waste, which is a major component of lost pesticide for
certain trees by injecting fungicides into the sapstream at the
trunk’s base or on the flare roots. These systems are useful
Mist blowers come in several sizes and types. Some are
where sprays cannot be used. Much less chemical is needed,
more suitable for use on large shade trees, and others are
and it is all delivered into the tree not into the surrounding
better adapted for nursery plantings. Small motor-powered
environment. Problems of uneven distribution of chemicals
backpack mist blowers are now available for low-growing
in the tree crown do sometimes occur, however, and each
plant materials. Several companies manufacture spraying
injection creates a wound that is a potential colonization site
machines. Your local pesticide dealer has information on
for decay fungi. In this regard, the smaller the injection, the
prices and specifications of spray equipment.
better. If a problem requires annual injection, the injurycaused by injection is probably more damaging than the
The object of spraying is to cover every leaf, twig, and
branch that might become infected by a pathogen. Thorough
Injector units using the Mauget system and similarly
coverage is especially essential when using protectant
constructed units for injecting fungicides into trees (e.g.,
fungicides. For protection against infectious diseases, both
Alamo) consist of a small plastic cylinder containing
leaf surfaces usually need to be covered. Because systemic
fungicide attached to a short plastic tube inserted into a pre-
fungicides are transported throughout the plant, complete
drilled hole in the trunk. Installing injector units requires
coverage for them is less important. Because of concerns over
knowledge and practice. Accordingly, these are used by
drift of pesticides to neighboring property, sprayers capable
arborists, nursery operators, and horticulturists who have had
of covering large trees should be used with caution.
An apparatus is also available for injecting liquid
Wetting, Spreading, and Sticking Agents
fungicides into the tree by gravity or under high pressure.
Wetting, spreading, and sticking agents (surfactants),
Small holes are first bored into the tree trunk to the depth of
often combined in commercial preparations as spreader-
the outer layers of sapwood. A special injector tap or screw is
stickers, need to be used in some spray mixtures. They are
then inserted into the hole. A high-pressure hose is connected
particularly necessary when pesticides are applied to hard-to-
wet broadleaf evergreens or conifers. Follow directions on
Karbam Black; General protectant fungicide. May leave
black residue on flowers and foliage.
The fungicide label usually indicates any restrictions in
folpet — Phaltan, Folpet; Rose and garden fungicide.
selection of compatible surfactants. The following are
fosetyl-Al — Aliette; Foliar and soil drench fungicide
surfactants commercially available for tank mixing: Biofilm
used for systemic control of Pythium and Phytophthora
Spreader-Sticker, Chevron Spray Sticker, Chevron Spreader,
Citowett (spreader-sticker), Multifilm L (spreader), Nu-film
funginex — Triforine; Rose disease control fungicide.
P (spreader-sticker), Nu-Film 17 (spreader-sticker), Ortho X-
Gallex — For therapeutic treatment of crown gall.
77 (spreader), Pinolene (sticker), Spray Stay (spreader-
Galltrol-A, Norbac-84 (Agrobacterium radiobacter
sticker), Sure Spred (spreader), Surfactant 11 (spreader), and
strain 84) — A preventive biocontrol of crown gall. iprodione — Chipco 26019; Broad spectrum, locally Materials Used to Control Diseases mancozeb — F-45, Fore, Mancozeb, Penncozeb,
Protect T/O; General protectant fungicide for foliar diseases. of Woody Plants maneb — Dithane M-22, Maneb, Manex, Blitex, Chem (Follow label instructions.)
Neb; General protectant fungicide for foliar diseases.
Fungicides are listed in this section, alphabetically by
MBC phosphate — Lignasan BLP, Elmosan, Elm-
common chemical name followed by trade name and
Noculate, Correx, Elmpro, Fungisol; Soluble systemic
fungicide or bactericide uses and remarks.
fungicide injected for Dutch elm disease control. benomyl — Benomyl WP; Fungicide with some metalaxyl — Subdue 2E Subdue II; Systemic soil
systemic properties; effective against many diseases.
drench fungicide used to control Pythium and Phytophthora
Tolerant strains of Botrytis, rose powdery mildew, and the
apple scab fungus now occur. Do not use benomyl alone. pentachloronitrobenzene — Terraclor, PCNB; Fungi-
Rather alternate or tank mix with other fungicides.
cide used principally to control Rhizoctonia using soil drench
Ineffective against Pythium, Phytophthora, and similar fungi.
applications or incorporated into soil in dry form. May
Benlate, a product containing benomyl, is not labeled for
suppress root development in cuttings.
landscape use, though other benomyl forms are. piperalin — Pipron; Powdery mildew fungicide for bordeaux mixture — Bordeaux mixture, Bordo,
Copper Bordo; Equal parts by wt. copper sulfate (bluestone)
propamocarb — Banol; For control of Phytophthora
+ hydrated lime in water; most effective if freshly mixed but
dried Bordeaux preparations are available. Some species
propiconazole — Banner, BannerMaxx, Alamo, Immunex;
of Ilex may be injured by copper. Proportions of chemical
Locally systemic fungicide effective for anthracnose, scab,
in the mixture can vary and are often expressed as pounds
powdery mildew, and rust diseases. Alamo is injected for Dutch
of copper sulfate, pounds of hydrated lime, and gallons of
streptomycin — Ag-Strep, Agrimycin, Phytomycin, captan — Captan Fungicide, Captan, Orthocide, Captan
Antibiotic spray powder, Streptomycin spray, Streptomycin
Dust; General protectant fungicide used for foliage diseases.
WP, Streptomycin C 17; Antibiotic effective against bacteria
Sometimes used for control of damping-off fungi.
but not fungi. Ineffective at low temperature. May cause
chlorothalonil — Daconil 2787, Bravo 720; Broad-
phytotoxicity at high rates during hot weather. Effectiveness
spectrum fungicide for control of foliage diseases including
is favored by slow drying conditions. Not recommended for
copper (fixed) — [see also Bordeaux mixture] Basic sulfur — Sulfur dust, wettable, Thiolux, Liquid lime-
Copper Sulfate, Tribasic copper sulfate, Basi-Cop, Microcop,
sulfur; Elemental sulfur is a fungicide for powdery mildew;
Copper 53 Fungicide, T-B-C-S 53, copper oxychloride
lime-sulfur can serve as both fungicide and insecticide and is
sulfate; General protectant fungicide. May be phytotoxic to
new spring growth, especially Ilex spp. thiabendazole — Arbotect 20-S; Systemic fungicide copper hydroxide — Kocide 101, 606, DF, Champion;
injected for Dutch elm disease and for sycamore anthracnose
General protectant fungicide. May be phytotoxic. copper sulfate pentahydrate — Phyton 27; Fungicide thiophanate-methyl (dimethyl 4, 4-o-phenylenebis-
for Dutch elm disease control via injection.
[3,thioallophanate]) — Cleary’s 3336, Fungo-Flo, Fungo
dodemorph acetate — Milban; For commercial
DF, Domain FL, 3336 WP, Topsin M; Systemic fungicide
greenhouse use only; controls powdery mildew.
having properties similar to benomyl. etridiazole (ethazole) — Terrazole, Truban; Soil drench triadimefon — Bayleton, Strike; Systemic fungicide for
fungicide useful against Pythium, Phytophthora damping-
control of powdery mildew, rust diseases, some leaf spots,
fenarimol — Rubigan AS; Locally systemic fungicide vinclozolin — Ornalin, Curalan DF; For control of
for control of powdery mildew and apple scab. ferbam — Carbamate T&O, Carbamate WDG, Ferbam, ziram — Ziram; General protectant fungicide. Fungicide Mixtures chlorinated hydrocarbons (some formulations are
mixed with chloropicrin) — Telone C-17; Fumigant. clorothalonil + fenarimol — Two Some; Combination
Controls nematodes, soil insects, some soilborne diseases,
protectant and locally systemic fungicide controlling a wide
and many weeds. Apply in spring or fall when soil
temperature is above 40°F. Plant when fumigant odor is gone
ethzole + thiophanate methyl — Banrot; Broad-
spectrum fungicide for control of root rot diseases of
chloropicrin (some formulations are mixed with
chlorinated hydrocarbons or methyl bromide) — Chlor-O-
thiophanate-methyl + mancozeb — Zyban, Duosan;
Pic, Picfume, Larvabrome, Nemex, Telone II; General soil
Broad spectrum systemic and protectant fungicide combination.
fumigant. Corrosive to metal; water or plastic seal necessary. Apply only when soil temperature is 60°F or higher. Aerate
soil by cultivation until odor is gone before planting — 2 to 4
General-purpose soil fumigants are designed to
eradicate essentially all soil organisms including fungi,
fenamifos — Nemacur; Nematicide with systemic action.
bacteria, nematodes, soil insects, plants, and seeds.
Protects ornamentals against the major nematode genera.
Commonly used materials are methyl bromide, chloropicrin,
methyl bromide (some formulations are mixed with
sodium methyldithiocarbamate, and mixtures containing two
chloropicrin) — Brom-0-Gas, Dowfume MC-2, Dowfume
or more active ingredients. Consider using a general-purpose
MC-33, Brozone, Nemaster; General soil fumigant; odorless,
fumigant for rehabilitation of high value soil infested with
therefore usually mixed with small amounts of chloropicrin
damaging populations of nematodes or root disease fungi.
to impart odor. Applied under plastic tarp or by injectionfollowed by tarp application. Soil must be 50°F or above.
Leaves bromide residue in soil. Be aware that this chemical is
1. Soil fumigation is most effective when soil is warm
being gradually phased out over concerns that it facilitates
and moderately moist, like summer or early autumn. 2. Cultivate soil at least 12 in. deep, providing a uniform oxamyl — Vydate; Systemic insecticide-nematicide;
loose texture. Remove roots and other non-rotted plant debris.
has broad-spectrum nematicidal activity when applied to soil;
3. Work the soil to seedbed condition to achieve effective
is unique in functioning as a nematicide when applied to
sealing of the surface by a roller or cultipacker after injection
foliage of certain plants. Fruit nursery plant applications. sodium methyldithiocarbamate — Vapam, Busan 1020; 4. Inject the chemical 6 to 8 in. deep or half the depth of
General soil fumigant; applied by injection or as drench. Also
used to prevent root-graft transmission of Dutch elm disease. 5. Carefully adhere to minimum waiting periods before
planting as indicated on product labels. Woody Plant Disease Control 6. It may be necessary to aerate the soil by cultivation. 7. Be aware of potential side effects, such as toxic ALL SPECIES
bromide residues and increases in soluble salts and nitrogen
Anthracnose and leaf spots Control: Sprays are usually not needed. Provide the
8. Follow all label directions.
growing site with good air movement and sunlightpenetration by pruning and spacing. Rake up and destroy
fallen infected leaves in autumn. If disease has been severe
Soil-borne nematodes can be controlled using nemati-
the previous year and cool, wet conditions are expected in
cidal fumigants like chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds
spring, spray with bordeaux mixture, chlorothalonil,
applied before planting. Follow guidelines listed previously
chlorothalonil + fenarimol, copper (fixed), mancozeb,
mancozeb + thiophanate-methyl, maneb, propiconazole, or
Fenamifos and oxamyl are useful for postplanting
thiophanate-methyl. Repeat 2 to 3 times at 10- to 14-day
nematode control treatments on a wide variety of woody
intervals, beginning at bud break. NOTE: Read the fungicide
plants. These chemicals also control some insect pests. These
label to be sure that the specific plant and disease are listed.
nematicides can also be used for preplant treatments. Consult
The plant and disease list for each fungicide is different. Dieback, decline Control: Keep trees well-watered, especially from May
Uses for Soil Fumigants &
to July. Prune out dead and dying branches. Prevent decline
by routine care and tree placement to avoid salt exposure andsoil compaction. Sever girdling roots as needed. Control
(Follow label instructions.)
defoliating insects. Aerate compacted soil in root zone.
Fumigants, fumigant mixtures, and nematicides are
listed in this section, alphabetically by common chemical
name followed by trade name and fumigant or nematicide
Control: Provide growing site with good air movement
and sunlight penetration by pruning and spacing. Apply
benomyl, dodemorph, fenarimol, propiconazole, thiophanate-
4 times at 10- to 14-day intervals beginning when buds open.
methyl, triadimefon, wettable sulfur, ziram, or mancozeb +
Weather conditions and severity of disease determine
thiophanate-methyl weekly beginning when disease symptoms
number of applications needed. The following species and
first appear. Check fungicide labels for specific plants cleared.
varieties are reported to be resistant to leaf blotch: Aesculusarguta, A. glabra var. monticola, A. glabra var. sargentii, A. Root and cutting rot of propagation and overwinter-
parviflora, and A. parviflora var. serotina. ing stock Control: Provide good sanitation, clean plant materials
and growing media, and good soil drainage. Fungicide
drenches, where labelled for specific crops, may be used. For
Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES.
water molds, use products containing metalaxyl, fosetyl-Al,or ethazole. For Rhizoctonia or other fungi, use benomyl,
PCNB, thiophanate-methyl, or iprodione. Control: See suggestions under MALUS. Storage mold of nursery stock BETULA (birch) Control: Maintain cold storage near freezing. Apply captan
Leaf rust, leaf spots
or benomyl in the field or just before nursery stock is packed. Control: Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. Verticillium wilt BUXUS (boxwood) Control: Practice strict nursery hygiene. It is difficult to
disinfest contaminated soil even using soil fumigation. Macrophoma and other leaf spots
Rogue out infected nursery plants. In the landscape, prune out
Control: Use sanitation measures as for canker. Fertilize
infected branches, or remove badly infected plants. Fertilize
and protect from winter injury to maintain vigor. Sprays not
and water landscape plants. Replace with Verticillium wilt
resistant plants, e.g., Betula spp., Buxus spp., Cercidiphyllum
japonicum, Carpinus spp., Cornus spp., Crataegus spp.,
Control: Apply soil insecticide/nematicide fenamifos.
Ginkgo biloba, Fagus spp., Gleditsia triacanthos, Ilex spp.,Juglans spp., Liquidambar stryaciflua, Malus spp., Morus
spp., Platanus spp., Pyracantha spp., Quercus spp., Pyrus
Control: Plant in well-drained soil and protect from
spp., Salix spp., Sorbus aucuparia, Tilia spp., and needled
drying winter winds. Prune infected branches back to healthy
wood. In spring, if possible, remove and destroy old leaveslodged in branches (a strong stream of water helps). ACER (maple) Anthracnose CARYA (hickory) Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Fungal leaf spots Control: Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. Sprays are
usually not necessary. If disease has been severe, see
Control: Fertilize and water as needed to provide good
growing conditions for maintaining plant health. Avoidinjuries. Remove and destroy cankered branches or excise
CASTANEA (chestnut) Blight, Endothia (Cryphonectria) parasitica Phyllosticta and other leaf spots Control: Prune away and destroy cankered limbs. Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES.
Cankers in landscape trees can be treated with a soil-waterpaste held in place with plastic. Treated cankers will begin
Taphrina leaf blister
remission. American chestnut is extremely susceptible;
Control: Sprays usually not needed. A single dormant
application of lime sulfur will control this disease. CATALPA Verticillium wilt Fungal leaf spots Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Norway
Control: Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. Sprays are
maples tolerant or resistant to Verticillium wilt include:
usually not necessary. If disease has been severe, see
‘Columnare Compacta’, ‘Jade Glen’, and ‘Parkway’.
suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Spray as leaves are
AESCULUS (horsechestnut, buckeye)
unfolding, when leaves reach full size, and 2 weeks later. Abiotic scorch Verticillium wilt Control: Provide adequate water. Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Guignardia leaf blotch, leaf spots CELTIS (hackberry) Control: Destroy fallen leaves in autumn. Spray with
Witches’ broom, caused by Sphaerotheca
chlorothalonil, chlorothalonil + fenarimol, or mancozeb 2 to
phytoptophila and eriophyid mites
The following are reported to be resistant or tolerant to fire
Control: No practical control for affected trees. C.
blight: C. adpressus praecox, C. adpressus praecox ‘Boer’, C.
sinensis (Chinese hackberry) is resistant.
apiculatus, C. bacillaris, C. dielsiana var. elegans, C. distica, C. francheti, C. harroviana, C. microphylla, C. neweryensis, C. CERCIS (redbud)
nitens, C. salicifolius repandens ‘Emerald Spray’, C. simonsi. Botryosphaeria canker Control: Prune and destroy affected branches when
foliage is dry. Control borers and avoid other injuries. Fabraea leaf spot Control: Destroy or compost fallen leaves. Spray as
suggested under ALL SPECIES when leaf buds open and
repeat 10 and 20 days later. Additional applications may be
Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES.
necessary during wet seasons. Plant resistant hawthorns suchas cockspur (C. crusgalli), Washington (C. phaenopyrum),
Toba (C. mordenensis cv. Toba), or Lavalle’s (C. lavallei). Botrytis flower and leaf blight Control: Disease is serious only in wet years. If wet
weather occurs during bloom, spray once with thiophanate-
Control: See suggestions under MALUS. Do not use
Discula anthracnose (lower branch dieback) Rusts, caused by Gymnosporangium spp. Control: Prune diseased branches back to sound wood
Control: Eliminate nearby red cedar and common
and destroy them. Remove epicormic shoots along trunk and
juniper to whatever extent practical. Spray with triadimefon,
limbs. Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. Avoid trimmer and
chlorothalonil, mancozeb + thiophanate-methyl, or
mower wounds and other unnecessary injuries. Maintain
chlorothalonil + fenarimol. Begin spray schedule when
vigor by applying mulch; water during dry periods. Do not
orange rust masses develop on cedars (April through May).
transplant dogwood trees from the wild. Resistant dogwoods
Make 3 or 4 applications at 7- to 10-day intervals. The
include: C. kousa, C. racemosa, C. canadensis. For fungicide
Washington thorn (C. phaenopyrum) and the cockspur thorn
suggestions, see under ALL SPECIES, and begin
ELEAGNUS (Russian olive) Fungal twig blights and cankers Canker, dieback Control: Prune diseased branches back to sound wood
Control: Prune out and destroy infected branches.
and destroy them. Maintain vigor by mulching; water duringdry periods. EUONYMUS Crown gall Phytophthora crown canker Control: Pretreat cuttings or liners with Galltrol-A or
Control: Avoid mechanical injuries, especially to the
Norbac 84. Destroy heavily infected plants. Prune out and
lower trunk and roots. Remove discolored wood down to
destroy galls on savable plants. Disinfest tools between cuts.
heartwood if necessary and healthy wood for 1.5 inches
Apply Gallex to exposed galls. Plant crown gall-resistant
around the edge of the canker. Control borers and treat all
plants in the following genera: Berberis, Buxus, Carpinus,
borer wounds like cankers. Trees with cankers that encircle
Catalpa, Cedrus, Cephalotaxus, Cryptomeria, Fagus, Ginkgo,
more than one half the stem should be removed and the area
Ilex, Koelreuteria, Larix, Liriodendron, Magnolia, Mahonia,
not replanted with dogwoods for several years unless the soil
Nyssa, Picea, Pinus, Pseudolarix, Tamarix, Taxodium, Tilia,
is fumigated. Where losses have occurred in nurseries,
and Tsuga. Euonymus alatus is resistant.
fumigate the soil before planting. Provide good soil drainage. Metalaxyl, used as a soil drench, will suppress crown canker. Powdery mildew Powdery mildew Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Apply
fungicide weekly beginning when disease symptoms first
Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Septoria and other fungal leaf spots, spot anthracnose Control: Sprays ordinarily are not necessary. If disease
was severe the previous year and spring conditions are wet,
see fungicides suggested under ALL SPECIES, and apply
Control: Prune out affected branches.
sprays at budbreak and 10 and 20 days later. FRAXINUS (ash) COTONEASTER Anthracnose and other leaf spots Fire blight Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Control: See suggestions under MALUS. GLEDITSIA (honeylocust) J. virginiana—‘Aurea’, ‘Berg’s Rust Resistant’, ‘Blue
Fountain’, ‘Globosa’, ‘Hillspire’, ‘Kosteri’,
Control: Rake up and destroy fallen leaves.
‘Pseudocupressus’, ‘Primidalis’, ‘Tripartita’, ‘Venusta’. Powdery mildew Kabatina tip blight (the most damaging tip blight in Control: No need to control this disease. Kentucky) Control: Prune out infected shoots. Chemical controls
have not been developed. Plant disease-tolerant cultivars
Control: Avoid injuries; alleviate stressful growing
conditions. Cultivars ‘Shademaster’, ‘Holka’, and ‘Imperial’
Juniperus chinensis—‘Ames’, ‘Aurea Gold Coast’,
‘Columnaris Hetzii’, ‘Hetzii Glauca’, ‘Keteleeri’, ‘Maney’,‘Mountbatten’, ‘Perfecta’, ‘Pfitzeriana’, ‘Pfitzeriana aurea’,
‘Robusta Green’, var. sargentii ‘Viridis’, sargentii ‘Glauca’,
Black root rot
‘Saybrook Gold’, ‘Spartan’, ‘Winter Green’;
Control: Practice strict nursery hygiene and sanitation. J. communis—‘Hornbrooki’, ‘Hibernica’;
Exclude the pathogen from the nursery by using disease-free
J. horizontalis—‘Bar Harbor’, ‘Marcellus’;
stock plants. Avoid use of unsterilized agricultural soils. J. procumbens—‘Nana’, ‘Variegata’;
Promote good plant growth. I. aquifolium and I. cornuta are
J. scopulorum—‘Sutherland’;J. virginiana—‘Blue Fountain’, ‘Prostrata Glauca’. Fungal leaf spots Control: Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. Phomopsis tip blight Control: If possible, prune out and destroy infected
JUGLANS (walnut, butternut)
shoots. Avoid overhead irrigation. Rogue and destroy
Fungal leaf spots
infected plants when disease is first seen in young plantings. Control: Destroy fallen leaves. Spray as suggested under
Spray with mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, or mancozeb +
ALL SPECIES 3 times at 2-week intervals, starting when
thiophanate-methyl plus a spreader-sticker at 2-week
intervals throughout the growing season. Use disease-resistant junipers such as:
JUNIPERUS (juniper, red cedar) Juniperus chinensis—‘Femina’, ‘Hetzii’, ‘Iowa’, ‘Keteleeri’,
Cedar-apple, cedar-hawthorn, and cedar-quince
‘Pfitzeriana’, ‘Pfitzeriana aurea’, ‘Robusta’, var. sargentii,
rusts, caused by Gymnosporangium spp.
sargentii ‘Glauca’, ‘Saybrook Gold’, ‘Shoosmith’, ‘Spartan’;
Control: Do not plant near flowering crabapple,
J. communis—‘Ashfordii’, ‘Aureo-spica’, var. depressa,
hawthorn, quince, and similar plants. Manual removal of
‘Hibernica’, ‘Hulkjaerhus’, ‘Prostrata aurea’, ‘Repanda’,
galls and infected twigs in early spring may be practical
where infection is light. Use disease-resistant varieties such as:
J. conferta—‘Blue Pacific’, ‘Emerald Sea’
J. horizontalis—‘Blue Mat’, ‘Depressa’, ‘Depressa aurea’,
J. chinensis—‘Ames’, ‘Blue Mountain’, ‘Blue Point’,
‘Douglasii’, ‘Prince of Wales’, ‘Procumbens’;
‘Columnaris Hetzii’, ‘Femina’, ‘Fortunei’, ‘Fountain’, ‘Grey
J. sabina—‘Broadmoor’, ‘Knap Hill’, ‘Skandia’;
Owl’, ‘Hetzii’, ‘Japonica’, ‘Keteleeri’, ‘Leeana’, ‘Maney’,
J. scopulorum—‘Silver King’, ‘Campbellii’;
‘Mas’, ‘Mountbatten’, ‘Oblonga’, ‘Pedula’, ‘Perfecta’,
J. squamata—var. fargesii, ‘Meyerii’, ‘Prostrata’, ‘Pumila’;
‘Pfitzeriana’, ‘Pfitzeriana Compacta’, ‘Pfitzeriana Glauca’,
‘Plumosa Aurea’, ‘Pyrimidalis’, ‘Robusta Green’, ‘sargentii’,sargentii ‘Variegata’, sargentii ‘Wateri’, ‘Winter Green’;
KALMIA (mountain laurel) J. communis—‘Aurea’, ‘Aureo-spica’, ‘Cra Covia’, var. Fungal leaf spots
depressa, depressa ‘Aurea’, ‘Hibernica’, ‘Oblonga Pendula’,
Control: Hand pick infected leaves and prune infected
‘Saxatilis’, ‘Saxatilis Pallas’, ‘Suecica’, ‘Suecica Nana’;
shoots; destroy or compost fallen leaves. If disease has been
J. horizontalis—‘Admirabilis’, ‘Adpressa’, ‘Argenteus’,
severe, spray as suggested under ALL SPECIES at budbreak
‘Depressa’, ‘Douglasii’, ‘Eximius’, ‘Filicinus’, ‘Glomerata’,
‘Lividus’, ‘Petraea’, ‘Plumosa’, ‘Variegata’, ‘Wiltonii’;J. procumbans;
KOELREUTERIA (goldenrain tree) Nectria canker J. sabina—‘Broadmoor’, ‘Fastigiata’, ‘Knap Hill’, ‘Skandia’,
Control: Prune back to sound wood. Fertilize and water
J. scopulorum—‘Medora’, ‘Moonglow’, ‘Sparkling Sky-rocket’, ‘Wichita Blue’;
Verticillium wilt J. squamata—‘Albo-variegata’, var. fargesii, ‘Meyerii’,
Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. LIRIODENDRON (tulip poplar)
The following flowering crabapple cultivars are
moderately to highly resistant to powdery mildew, scab, fire
Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES.
blight leaf spot, and rust (see also U.K. CES publication ID-68 “The Flowering Crabapple”):
‘Adams’, bacatta ‘Jackii’, ‘Beverly’, ‘Bob White’, ‘Candied
Control: No need to control this disease.
Apple’, ‘Christmas Holly’, ‘David’, ‘Donald Wyman’,‘Henningii’, ‘Jewelberry’, ‘Liset’, ‘Mary Potter’, ‘Molten
Lava’, ‘Ormiston Roy’, ‘Profusion’, ‘Red Jewel’, ‘Red
Splendor’, ‘Robinson’, sargentii, ‘Sentinel’, ‘Silver Moon’,
Control: If disease has been severe, spray as suggested
‘Strawberry Parfait’, ‘Sugar Tyme’, ‘Velvet Pillar’, ‘White
Angel’, ‘White Cascade’, ‘Winter Gold’, hunnanensis‘Veitchii’, zumi ‘Calocarpa’. MALUS (apple, flowering crabapple) See list of disease-resistant varieties and cultivars below. PICEA (spruce) Cytospora canker Fire blight Control: Remove and destroy all diseased branches (do
Control: Avoid use of high nitrogen fertilizer. Cut out
not prune in wet weather); disinfest tools between cuts.
cankers and blighted branches between November and
Chemical control measures are not available.
March when tree is dry, making cuts below the visible limitsof infection. Unless done when symptoms are first just
visible, pruning cuts done April through October have little
Control: Sprays are normally not needed. This disease is
value in fire blight control and in fact may spread the disease.
most often found on trees weakened by other factors.
Once symptoms are obvious, allow tree defenses to stop the
Chlorothalonil applications in early and late June may help.
spread of disease. Remove worthless pear, apple, quince, andsimilar plants from the vicinity. Use MARYBLYT computer
program to time sprays in the nursery during bloom.
Otherwise, spray with streptomycin when 25 percent ofblossoms are open and again when 75 percent of blossoms are
open. To prevent injury, if temperatures are above 65°F, use
Gall rusts of 2- and 3-needle pines (eastern gall rust,
fixed copper instead of streptomycin. Avoid use of
western gall rust) Control: In nurseries, cull seedlings with stem swellings.
In plantations, cut off branch galls and rogue heavily galled
Rust, caused by Gymnosporangium spp.
trees in early spring. Apply mancozeb or triadimefon once
Control: Eliminate nearby red cedar and common
when yellow pustules erupt through bark on galls.
juniper where possible, or remove and destroy cedar rustgalls and rust-infected juniper twigs. Spray with fenarimol,
White pine decline, a non-infectious disease
propiconazole, chlorothalonil + fenarimol, triadimefon,
Control: No control for established trees. Provide a
mancozeb, or mancozeb plus thiophanate-methyl. Make 3
planting site having acid soil with little clay. Avoid soil
applications at 10-day intervals beginning when orange rust
compaction and tree injuries. Remedial sulfur applications to
masses develop on junipers (April through May). Powdery mildew White pine root decline, a fungal disease Control: Provide a sunny, well-ventilated planting site. Control: Remove and destroy infected trees. Choose
Use disease-resistant types. Prune away shading vegetation.
well-drained planting sites. Control wood boring insect
For fungicide suggestions, see under ALL SPECIES. Scab Needlecast diseases of 2- and 3-needle pines Control: Rake up and destroy all fallen leaves and fruits
Control: In nurseries, spray with chlorothalonil, ferbam,
in the fall. During the growing season, spray: chlorothalonil,
or mancozeb plus a spreader-sticker monthly from mid-April
fenarimol, propiconazole, chlorothalonil + fenarimol,
through October. Avoid planting highly susceptible strains of
mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, or mancozeb + thiophanate-
Scots pine such as Spanish and French Green.
methyl at pink bud and at petal-fall, plus 2 more applications
In plantations and landscapes: Plant on slopes when
at 10-day intervals to control primary infections. Apply
possible. Space trees and control weeds for good air
before rain if possible, and extend the schedule during rainy
circulation around low branches. Avoid susceptible varieties
seasons. Use disease-resistant crabapples.
of Scots pine; if in doubt, use long-needle varieties. Rogueheavily infected source trees. Trim off and destroy lowest
Frogeye leaf spot (black rot)
branches to promote air circulation. If disease occurs, spray
Control: Eliminate dead twigs and branches.
four times at monthly intervals beginning July 1(Lophodermium needle cast) or mid-April through June (for
brown spot needle blight or Naemacyclus needle cast). Use
Spray with captan, chlorothalonil, vinclozolin, or
chlorothalonil, mancozeb, ferbam, or bordeaux mixture
propiconazole as blossoms open and again 10 days later. PYRACANTHA (firethorn) Needle rust of 2- and 3-needle pines (Coleosporium) Fire blight Control: Goldenrod and aster plants are alternate hosts. Control: See under MALUS fire blight control.
In plantations, mow or otherwise control these weedsannually before August. Scab Control: Spray with benomyl plus a spreader-sticker;
Diplodia tip blight of 2- and 3-needle pines
chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl, mancozeb, mancozeb +
Control: Prune and destroy affected cones, twigs, and
thiophanate-methyl, or chlorothalonil + fenarimol at full
branches during dry weather in autumn. Spray with
bloom and 2 and 4 weeks later. The Yunan firethorn, P.
thiophanate-methyl at bud break, as candles are beginning to
crenato-sessata, is reported to be resistant. Hybrids resistant
elongate, and when needles are emerging from needle
to both scab and fire blight include ‘Apache’, ‘Fiery
Cascade’, ‘Mohave’, ‘Navaho’, ‘Pueblo’, ‘Shawnee’,
Pine wilt nematode Control: Remove and destroy affected trees. PYRUS (pear) PLATANUS (plane tree and sycamore) Fire blight Anthracnose Control: See MALUS fire blight control. The Bradford,
Control: Prune out infected twigs and branches. Rake up
Aristocrat, and other flowering pear cultivars are susceptible
and destroy fallen leaves. See fungicide suggestions listed for
to the disease yet not normally heavily infected.
ALL SPECIES. Make a first application before trees break bud,
a second at bud break, and a third when leaves are expanding. Trees can also be protected by thiabendazole injections. Anthracnose Control: See anthracnose under ALL SPECIES. POPULUS (poplar, aspen, cottonwood) Dieback, decline Fungal cankers Control: Keep trees well-watered, especially through
Control: Mulch and water trees as needed. Avoid
dry periods from May through July. Control of defoliating
wounding. Prune out and destroy infected branches during
insects is important for prevention of dieback and decline.
dry weather. Destroy severely affected trees. Do not plant
Alleviate soil compaction in the root zone. Prune out dead
Lombardy poplars. The Japan poplar, Populus maximowczii,
and dying branches to improve tree’s appearance.
is reported to have some resistance to cankers. Taphrina leaf blister Leaf rust Control: Spray once before bud swell with mancozeb,
Control: Spray triadimefon in early summer just before
chlorothalonil, or chlorothalonil + fenarimol.
disease is expected and again 2 weeks later. Actinopelte leaf spot PRUNUS (cherry, flowering cherry, peach, Control: Normally, there is no need to control this
disease. Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. Propiconazole
Black knot Control: Prune away and destroy knotted twigs, and
Armillaria shoestring root rot
excise knots on large limbs when trees are dormant. Spray
Control: This disease most frequently affects trees
with thiophanate-methyl when dormant and at pink bud, full
weakened by other agents. No control. Bacterial leaf scorch, Xylella Crown gall Control: No effective control. Control: See EUONYMUS disease control. For galls on
established trees, use Gallex according to label instructions. Powdery mildew Control: Usually there is no need to control this disease. Coccomyces leaf spot Control: Rake up and destroy fallen leaves. Spray with
propiconazole or captan at petal fall, plus 2 more applications
at 2-week intervals, plus a single application after fruit drop ifneeded. RHODODENDRON (azalea, rhododendron) Azalea gall Monilinia shoot blight (brown rot) Control: Pick and destroy galls. Control: Prune out and destroy infected twigs if possible. Botryosphaeria canker and dieback Powdery mildew Control: Prune and destroy infected parts disinfesting
Control: See under ALL SPECIES powdery mildew
tools carefully between cuts. Avoid adverse growing
control. Resistant lilacs (non-vulgaris types) include: S.
conditions, i.e., drought, freezing, etc. Hybrids reported to be
diversifolia, S. emodi, S. julianae, S. meyeri, S. mycrophylla,
resistant include: ‘Boursalt’, ‘Chionoides White’,
S. mycrophylla superba, S. oblata var. dilatata, S. patula, S.
‘Cunningham’s White’, ‘English Roseum’, ‘Le Bar’s Red’,
persica, S. reflexa, S. reticulata, S. swegiflexa, S.
‘Roseum 2’, ‘Sweet Simplicity’, ‘Wissahickon’.
sweginzowii, S. villosa, S. yunnanensis. Phytophthora dieback THUJA (arborvitae) Control: Avoid planting near lilacs. Prune and destroy
infected twigs. Reduce shade if possible. As new leaves
Control: See under JUNIPERUS tip blight disease control.
appear, spray with mancozeb or chlorothalonil + fenarimol,making 2 applications 10 to 14 days apart. Applications of
metalaxyl (soil drench) or fosetyl-Al may help. Dutch elm disease Fungal leaf spots Control: Where infected elms are allowed to grow
Control: Hand pick infected leaves if possible. Spray at
nearby, the chances of preserving a susceptible elm are poor.
budbreak and 10 and 20 days later with thiophanate-methyl,
Effective control is best done on a community-wide basis. 1. Eliminate, if possible, all potential beetle-breeding
elm material within 1,000 feet of trees to be protected. This
Root rot and wilt, caused by Phytophthora and other
material includes diseased, weak, recently cut, killed, or
broken elm trees or parts of trees including firewood. Such
Control: Plant only in soils with good drainage. Avoid
material should be burned, buried, or debarked, and the bark
overwatering. Adjust soil Ph to between 4.0 and 4.5 by
burned or buried. This sanitation is most important in and
amending with acid peat or sulfur. Apply soil drench
immediately adjacent to trees to be protected. Without
fungicides such as propamocarb, metalaxyl, ethazole, or
sanitation, the other suggestions listed here are not very helpful. 2. Make dormant application (March or April) of ROSA (rose)
methoxychlor or chlorpyrifos insecticide for control of elmbark beetles. Black spot Control: Spray with chlorothalonil, folpet, fenarimol,
3. Prune out DED-infected branches. Pruning is
ferbam, maneb, captan, mancozeb, propiconazole, ziram, or
sometimes effective if symptoms are detected while confined
mancozeb + thiophanate-methyl at 7- to 14-day intervals
to a small branch and the large branch bearing the small one
beginning as leaves expand. Shorten intervals during wet
weather. Some rose varieties are sensitive to chlorothalonil. 4. Inject Arbotect 20-S, Lignasan (Correx, Elmpro),
Resistant hybrid tea roses include: ‘Carla’, ‘Cayenne’,
Fungisol, or Phyton 27 into the lower trunk and root flare for
‘Duet’, ‘Electron’, ‘First Prize’, ‘Granada’, ‘Miss All
protection or therapy. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for
American Beauty’, ‘Mister Lincoln’, ‘Pascali’, ‘Peace’,
application. Combine eradicative pruning (step 3) with
‘Pink Peace’, ‘Portrait’, ‘Pristine’, ‘Proud Land’, ‘Sutter’s
therapeutic treatments. These should be made as soon as
Gold’, ‘Tiffany’, ‘Tropicana’.
symptoms are seen, but will seldom be effective in trees that
Resistant floribunda/grandiflora roses include: ‘Angel
became infected the previous year or that show symptoms in
Face’, ‘Betty Prior’, ‘Carousel’, ‘Europeana’, ‘First Edition’,
more than 5 percent of the crown. Fungicide injections made
‘Gene Boerner’, ‘Ivory Fashion’, ‘Montezuma’, ‘Pink
the year before may protect trees from the disease.
Parfait’, ‘Prominant’, ‘Queen Elizabeth’, ‘Razzle Dazzle’, ‘Red
5. Prevent root graft transmission of DED by applying
Gold’, ‘Rose Parade’, ‘Sonia’, ‘Sun Sprite’, ‘The Fairy’.
vapam to the soil in 3/4" x 18" holes 6 inches apart midwaybetween diseased and healthy trees at a rate of 1/4 cup of
dilute solution (1 part Vapam to 3 parts water) per linear foot. Control: See under EUONYMUS disease control.
Seal by tamping. This treatment should also prevent root graft
transmission of phloem necrosis. If phloem necrosis is
Control: See suggestions under ALL SPECIES. Select
involved, treat at two sites: one between diseased tree and
fungicides that also control black spot.
nearest healthy tree and one between first and second healthytrees. Digging a trench 18 inches deep and a few inches wide
Brown canker, stem canker, graft canker
between trees will accomplish the same as vapam treatments. Control: Prune out and destroy infected canes. 6. The herbicide cacodylic acid can be used to kill diseased
elm trees which attract and “trap” bark beetles. The beetles fail to
mature in such trees and are then lost as a vector source. Bacterial blight
In general, native elms are susceptible to Dutch elm
Control: Prune out and destroy dead twigs.
disease and phloem necrosis; elms of European origin vary in
susceptibility to Dutch elm disease; elms of Asiatic origin areresistant. The yellows pathogen normally is not a problem inEuropean and Asiatic elms. The following can be grown:Chinese elm (U. parvifolia), Scots elm (U. glabra), Buismanelm (U. hollandica ‘Christine Buisman’), and Groeneveldelm (U. hollandica ‘Groeneveld’). Additional resistantcultivars such as ‘Lobel’, ‘Dodoens’, ‘Plantyn’, ‘Clusius’,and ‘Columella’ are available. Hybrid clones with Asian orEuropean parentage ‘Dynasty’, ‘Frontier’, ‘Homestead’,‘Jacan’, ‘New Horizon’, ‘Ohio’, ‘Pathfinder’, ‘Pioneer’,‘Prospector’, ‘Regal’, ‘Sapporo Autumn Gold’, ‘Thompson’,and ‘Urban’ Elm have been bred for disease resistance. ‘American Liberty’ ‘Independence’, and ‘Washington’American elms are considered tolerant to DED but not to elmyellows. Consult nursery catalogs for a full account of thecharacteristics of disease-resistant elms.
Disease-resistant elms in the vicinity of susceptible trees
must be included in sanitation programs since elm barkbeetles breed in dead or dying parts of all kinds of elms. Yellows, also known as phloem necrosis Control: See controls listed for Dutch elm disease. Bacterial wetwood and slime-flux Control: Install drainpipes to keep fluid from running
down the bark. Pipes can be of threaded metal or stiff plastic. If plastic is used, coat the inside of the hole with grafting waxbefore fitting the tube, and seal at the surface with graftingwax. Plastic can be cut to desired length after fitting. VIBURNUM Powdery mildew Control: See ALL SPECIES powdery mildew control.
Resistant types include V. burkwoodii ‘Mowhawk’ and V. carlcephalum ‘Cayuga’. Additional References Jones, R.K., ed. Diseases of Woody Ornamental Plants and Their Control in Nurseries. North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension Service.
Pirone, P.P. Diseases and Pests of Ornamental Plants. JohnWiley & Sons.
Sinclair, W.A., Lyon, H.H., and Johnson, W.T. Diseases ofTrees and Shrubs. Cornell University Press. Educational programs of the Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service serve all people regardless of race, color, age, sex, religion, disability, or national origin. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, C. Oran Little,Director of Cooperative Extension Service, University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, and Kentucky State University, Frankfort. Issued 7-89; Revised/Printed 7-96, 2000 copies; 10000 copies to date.
P ref eitu ra Mu nic ipal d e Gua rac i Rua Pref. João de Giuli, 180 – CEP 86620-000 – Guaraci PR Fone/Fax: (43)260-1133 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org CNPJ – 75.845.537/0001-51 EDITAL DE PREGÃO PRESENCIAL Nº 012/2013 Município de Guaraci - PR Secretaria Municipal de Administração Edital de Pregão Presencial nº. 012/2013 Tipo de julgamento: menor preço no lote Edital de preg
[Regd. No. TN/CCN/467/2009-11. [Price: Rs. 6.40 Paise. TAMIL NADU GOVERNMENT GAZETTE Part III—Section 1(a) General Statutory Rules, Notifications, Orders, Regulations, etc., issued by Secretariat Departments. NOTIFICATIONS BY GOVERNMENT CONTENTS Tamil Nadu Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules, 1983—Tamil Nadu State Legal Services Authority Rules, 1997—