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WORKSHOP ON CURRENT SCENARIO OF RODENTICIDES AND
Rodents are estimated to cause about 5-15% damage and loss to cereals and other sectors.
There is no place/trade or business that is not afflicted with rodents. They cause accidents by
damaging electrical/ cable installations. The total damage due to rodents is huge and runs into
thousands of crores in the country. Rodenticides are one of the important means of controlling
the rodent menace. However, limitations with the existing rodenticides are - accidental or
secondary poisoning, risk to non target species and probable development of resistance. It is
also found that the choice for rodenticides or their formulations is virtually absent in the
Country. Under such an eventuality, there is need for awareness creation on relevant aspects
of existing rodenticides among the stakeholders, who are involved in using the technology as
well as those developing the technology. Further, the R&D on existing rodenticides and
feedback mechanism are nonexistent leaving the rodenticides to their fate in the market. Effort
also is needed to develop safer and effective formulations. Hence the proposed workshop is
proposed. Who is Organising?
Food and Agri Business School (FABS), an innovative initiative of Sagar Group of Institutions,
Hyderabad, in collaboration with Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad and
ICAR All India Network Project on Rodent Control
Who is the Workshop Coordinator?
Dr. Mohan Rao,
Former Joint Director, NIPHM, FAO Consultant and renowned rodent
management expert, Technical Director, FABS Who all can participate?
1. Senior Executives of Industry covering:
a. Pesticide Industry, b. Rodenticide Manufacturing industry c. Urban/Structural Pest Management d. Poultry Industry e. Warehousing f. Pest Control Operators
a. All India Network Project on Rodent Control b. ICAR Institutions c. Agriculture Universities d. NGOs
a. National Centre for Disease Control (Ministry of Health),
b. Directorate of PPQ&S (Ministry of Agriculture), c. IGMRI, d. FCI e. CWC (Ministry of Public Distribution and Civil Supplies) f. State Agriculture Departments g. Commodity Storage agencies
When and where is the Workshop?
21st/22nd February, 2014 in the Conference Hall of Directorate of Oilseeds Research,
How to Register?
Book a slot and confirm the participation by sending the participants details by mail to
How to pay the registration fee?
By sending a Demand Draft or local cheque in favour of “Food and Agri Business School, Chevella,
or electronic transfer to A/c 141511100000201, IFSC code: ANDB0001415.
Address for Communication and clarifications:
Dr. Mohan Rao, Technical Director
446, Safa Arcade,
Opp to Pillar 15 PVNR Express Way
Hyderabad – 500 028, AP
BACK GROUND FOR THE WORKSHOP
Rodents are largest taxonomic group of mammals with over 1,400 species in the world. Most rodent species are relatively small, secretive, prolific, adaptable, and have continuously growing incisors which require continuous gnawing and have been bothering different sectors in India for so many decades. All rodent species have ecological, scientific, social, and economic values. A few (about 5%) rodent species in the world are serious pests. 14 species are identified as pest species in India, although about 104 rodent species exist. It was estimated in 2003 that in Asia alone, the amount of grain eaten by rodents would provide enough food to feed 200 million people in a year.
1. Importance of Rodents in Agriculture/Storage/Other sectors
Rodent damage includes pre harvest, post harvest, food and commercial establishments,
contamination with urine and feces, property damage, cable and irrigation pipe damage, and disease transmission. The analysis of rodent losses in pre harvest indicates a range of 5-15% damage to major cereal crops of rice and wheat. Due to their fast adaptability to changing climatic conditions, several areas in the country became endemic to rodents primarily due to change in agricultural practice and secondarily due to climate variability. The near total losses of rice crop in Mizoram and in several North Eastern States were examples of such outbreaks. Even horticultural crops like Passion fruit, Oranges and Banana were not spared during 2006-2008. The r-pattern of faster breeding mode of rodents resulted in outbreak that lead to a loss of about 27% of rice crop in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh during 2010. About 20 to 63 per cent damage to sugarcane was reported in UP, AP and Punjab States. In Gujarat rodents damaged up to 85.42% of the crop in Saurashtra region during 1988-89. Damage up to 57.3 per cent was reported to oil palm in the country. Similarly damage from 10 to 30 per cent was observed in coconut. Cocoa pods are normally affected up to 50 per cent due to rodent gnawing. Cardamom damage was also reported in Karnataka and Kerala States. A committee constituted by Government of India for assessment of storage losses in 1996 estimated a total loss of 9.33% for food commodities and rodents accounted for 2.5% from this. Consequences of rodent damage to seeds in storage are unaccounted; although the mother seed is very expensive.
Public Health Sector
Rodent related problems exist in public health due to their role as vectors and reservoirs
for dreaded bacterial diseases like leptospirosis, scrub typhus, salmonellosis etc., in addition to plague. Plague outbreaks are being reported in different countries, viz., Peru in 2010, People's Republic of China in 2009, 2006 in DR Congo etc although it is reported in India during 2004 in Uttarakhand. Due to changing nature of human interactions at global level, chances of vector species spread to different continents through cargo have increased threatening the health security of humans in many countries. Further, urbanization without commensurate sanitary measures increased rapid adaptability by vector populations resulting in more reports of rodent borne zoonoses in the country. This brings out the role of Port Health Officers in preventing
entry of the vectors in to the country and other Health Professionals in giving guidance for prevention and control of rodent borne zoonoses already existing in the country. The National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) is engaged in vector and disease surveillance and extending advise on vector species management. In this connection, rodent vector management assumed importance to arrest the entry and spread of rodent borne zoonoses.
Animal Husbandry Sector
Rodents are also vectors transmitting diseases like leptospirosis and salmonellosis to
animals. Leptospirosis affects all farm animal species, dogs and horses. In cattle, a specific form of mastitis, known as 'milk-drop syndrome'
occurs. Animals become carriers and shed the bacteria in urine. Leptospira pomona
is reportedly causing abortions in last trimester in cattle and buffaloes at a prevalence of 4 to 20% as per a study conducted in 2005. While animal leptospirosis is known to be widespread in India, not much is known of the spread and incidence of the human variety through animal exposure. Some occupational groups such as agricultural labourers, sewage workers, animal handlers etc. constitute high risk groups. In recent years, the disease has been a problem for dairy farmers since they work below the cows, increasing the risks of urine splashing into the farmer's nose and mouth.
Poultry farming, which is one of the major human occupations, suffers severe losses
due to rodents, which cause direct damages to poultry house structures, poultry feed, chicks and eggs and indirect damages by contamination and deterioration of poultry house environment and by spreading several diseases to poultry birds and farmers. The poultry farm premises provide the most favourable and stable habitat to large populations of rodents because of abundant food availability from feed and poultry products and predator free shelter to them throughout the year. Adequate attention is not paid by poultry scientists or farmers. As per conservative estimates made by ICAR Rodent Research Project, the rodent losses are Rs 94 per 1000 birds in Punjab, Rs 8,744 in a medium sized poultry farm in Madhya Pradesh and Rs 0.63/100 eggs per day in Rajasthan. Damage to 0.5% eggs is common and can reach up to 10% under poor storage conditions. Rodents are vectors and reservoirs for leptospirosis, salmonellosis and toxoplasmosis are major diseases transmitted to humans in interaction with poultry environments. House rats and House mice contaminate the whole poultry premises through their movement enhancing the chances of spread of bacterial and viral diseases to chick as well as humans in the vicinity. The cost of disease control among the poultry birds is enormous due to expensive chemotherapy and vaccination of flocks.
Urban and Structural establishments
With increase in urbanization and inadequate waste disposal, the habitat has become
conducive for rodent breeding and the rodent problem is on increase. Similarly, in Indian Railways, the rodents pose a problem in railway coaches threatening health and fire hazard problems. The pipes, cables, drip systems are being damaged by rodents in the country and
documented damage levels are hardly available. The rodent problems are increasingly felt in food establishments, shopping maals and pharma sectors.
2. Need for Rodent Management and role of Rodenticides
Many tools are used to control rodent populations in all these sectors, especially
agriculture and residential premises. Integrated methods of rodent management are often adopted with rodenticides as one of the components by various stakeholders including Pest Management Professionals. However, during high rodent infestations, large tracts of areas need to be treated with rodenticides, to prevent immigration from un controlled areas. As such rodenticides assumed as major tools to manage their populations. In present perspective, the use of metal phosphide - Zinc phosphide is common in many situations in spite of bait shyness, secondary and accidental poisoning hazards. The fumigant Aluminium phosphide is restricted for use in India due to its hazardous nature. These fast acting rodenticides are deemed registered rodenticides and in the market from 1960s. Among the anticoagulants, Bromadiolone is being used widely in the country with different formulations after its registration in 1988 and after the withdrawal of warfarin from the market.
Benefits of the Rodenticides
Rodenticides, both acute and chronic were successful to a larger extent in Indian
perspective, when used judiciously. The National Program launched by Indian Council of Agricultural Research in 1976 recommended use of zinc phosphide baiting followed by aluminium phosphide burrow fumigation of residual burrows. This recommendation was adopted by many States at that time and obtained considerable success of rodent management. After identification of the failure reasons and other problems with these two rodenticides, the Government of India recommended use of bromadiolone as one of the components under Integrated Pest Management. Subsequently this second generation anticoagulant was successfully used in crop fields and also being used in urban/structural situations by Pest Management Professionals. Even the campaigns organized by different States in lakhs of hectares gave above 70% control success. Still limited success was reported at times in some areas with reasons attributed to development of resistance.
Gaps in need and availability and scope for new approaches
In India, only acute rodenticide - zinc phosphide and chronic rodenticide - bromadiolone
are available in the market. Efforts are in progress to bring the anticoagulants - flocoumafen and difenacoum in the country. The non anticoagulant slow acting rodenticides are to be explored, which are registered and used in many other countries. These slow acting rodenticides include Cholecalciferol, a Vitamin D derivative and Difethiolone. Similarly zinc phosphide formulation could be refined with ready-to-use as well as encapsulated formulations. There is also a need to bring newer safer and effective molecules of rodenticides in the country. There are reports on non availability of bromadiolone concentrate formulation in pesticide outlets. Such issues could be deliberated for further development of rodenticides,
which will enhance the rodent management success by different clientele including Pest Management Professionals.
Need for Exploring new strategies for effective rodent
management in various sectors
The limitations with the existing rodenticides were - accidental or secondary poisoning, risk
to non target species and probable development of resistance. It was also found that the choice for rodenticides or their formulations is virtually absent in the Country. Under such an eventuality, there is need for awareness creation on relevant aspects of existing rodenticides among the stakeholders, who are involved in using the technology as well as those developing the technology. Further, the R&D on existing rodenticides and feedback mechanism are nonexistent leaving the rodenticides to their fate in the market. Effort also is needed to develop safer and effective formulations.
4. Workshop on Status of Rodenticides
With this backdrop, it is planned that a Workshop on Current Scenario of Rodenticides
and their future outlook
is being organized to discuss all the aspects concerning existing rodenticides in India among different stakeholders. Constraint analysis will be made along with identifying future course of action to improve their effectiveness and bringing newer safer formulations and molecules in the country. The Workshop also intends to deliberate on rodent repellents and sterilants, the future molecules. The needful actions by the Industry as well as scientists are expected to be worked out in the Panel Discussion for follow up action and updating the rodent management technology with rodenticides as one of the components.
1. To analyses the current scenario of rodenticides in India 2. To identify Food and Health Security issues concerning in Agriculture, Horticulture,
Animal Husbandry, Poultry and Public Health vis a vis role of rodenticides.
3. To give exposures on registered rodenticides and scope for further development 4. To discuss the issues relating to usage of rodenticides in the present scenario and spell
5. To discuss regulatory status of rodenticides in world vis a vis India to develop newer
6. To bring out recommendations concerning newer and safer rodenticide formulations
and regulatory issues in view of food and health security to India
WORKSHOP ON CURRENT SCENARIO OF RODENTICIDES AND THEIR
Rodents as pests and vectors, and role of rodenticides in their management
Types of rodenticides - scope for further development
Impact of rodenticide campaigns on reduction of crop loss and rodent borne zoonoses and Industry role
Use of acute rodenticides -ZnP and ALP- Status and prospects in India and abroad
Status and need for development of rodent repellents
Status and need for Anti-fertility agents in rodent pest management
Demand versus supply of rodenticides and need for wider coverage
Regulatory status of second generation anticoagulants in Asia and EU Regions and prospects of anticoagulants in India
Panel Discussion on efforts and measures required to enhance use of rodenticides for food and health security - Drawing up future plan of action
Diagnosis,Therapy and Prophylaxis of Fungal DiseasesGuideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the german society forgynecology and obstetrics, the working group for infections andinfectimmunology in gynecology and obstetrics, the german societyof dermatology, the board of german dermatologists and the germanspeaking mycological societyProf. Dr. med. Werner Mendling, Vivantes – Klinikum im Fr
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, Feb. 2005, p. 1265–12690019-9567/05/$08.00ϩ0 doi:10.1128/IAI.73.2.1265–1269.2005Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 Antagonizes Giardia intestinalis In VivoMartı´n A. Humen,1 Graciela L. De Antoni,1,2 Jalil Benyacoub,3 Marı´a E. Costas,4Marta I. Cardozo,4 Leonora Kozubsky,4 Kim-Yen Saudan,3