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Computing & Software
proactive spam controls by Nithen Naidoo, Deloitte Security and Privacy Services
The internet has introduced the world to a façade of electronic freedom. This “freedom” is often exploited by malicious or opportunistic members of the internet community. A prime example of such an injustice is spam. There are many definitions of spam.
Mail abuse prevention system (MAPS) www.
emails are usually sent by family and friends with
addresses. Essentially Richter is being accused
mailabuse.org defines an electronic message
large attachments which hog bandwidth and
of spamming or “email marketing” as he calls it.
as spam if: “(1) The recipient’s personal reduce employee productivity.
Richter’s optinrealbig.com was the third largest
identity and context are irrelevant because Spam, much like the internet, is constantly and advertisement mailer on the net according to
the message is equally applicable to many dynamically evolving. It is multi-faceted and the law suit claims. He had also been listed as
other potential recipients; AND (2) the recipient
therefore defies precise definition. The only one of the “ten most influential and powerful
has not verifiably granted deliberate, explicit,
certainty is that it is a growing problem facing
men under 38” by Details magazine. Spammers
and still-revocable permission for it to be sent;
the internet community at large. Eric Allman, the
or bulk mailers seem to reap far greater rewards
AND (3) the transmission and reception of the
creator of the world’s first internet mail program,
for their services. This would suggest that they are
message appears to the recipient to give a
says “There is a genuine concern that too much
the big earners in the spam market arena.
disproportionate benefit to the sender.”
Spammers are capable of bulk mailing more
Many people believe spam commonly refers
than 250 million email messages a day. Although
to unsolicited commercial email to (UCE). Why spam? – show me the money
the market prices may vary optinrealbig.com
But UCE is merely a small facet of what spam
The spam industry has grown at a phenomenal
represents today. In fact, most spam is not UCE.
rate and therefore it is difficult to define key roles
Dr. Curtis Kret of the Secure Science Corporation
and market figures. Current research suggests
(www.securescience.net) defines spam simply that the key players in the commercial spam of mail sent worldwide is attributed to
as “undesirable email” falling into one of the
industry fall into three major categories namely
list makers, bulk mailers (spammers) and service
£3,2-billion a year. The market is so large that the
buyers. A fourth category - scam mailers - often
spam kingpins now have their own ISPs and run
• NCE (non-responsive commercial email)
falls between the bulk mailer and service buyer
spam networks. Spam networks allow spammers
categories depending on their skill level and
to send thousands of messages from hundreds
of different points around the world. This makes the big players in the spam industry difficult to
• Covert messages camouflaged as spam.
List makers are the individuals who collect email addresses. They use various techniques
Due to the dynamic nature of the internet and
to collect email data and sell different grades
its rapid development these definitions are
It is difficult to predict how much the service buyer
of addresses based on the validity of the data.
constantly re-assessed. Many corporations now
have included a class of spam described by
Most of the list makers encountered during our
(values may vary). The only good indication
research firm Gartner as “friendly fire”. These 2004 research project were between the ages
at this point is that they are willing to pay $200
of 16 to 24 and often operated from school
per million messages sent and that they are
responsible for more than 65% (marketing and
scam mails collectively) of mail sent worldwide.
is roughly $100 depending on the This would suggest that the spam industry is grade of data. Although they perform
certainly large and extremely lucrative.
a key role they certainly are not the big earners in the market space.
Bulk mailers or Spammers are an You will require a basic knowledge of email entirely different breed. During architecture and mail headers to truly April 2004 Scott Richter founder of comprehend the sections that follow. This optinrealbig.com was being sued section tries to familiarise the reader with a few
by the State of New York’s Attorney General for violating federal deceptive
After a message is created and it leaves the
client it contains the “To”, “From” ”Subject” and
subject lines and faked senders’ “Content” fields. These fields are described in
• Grade A – user exists and email account is in
• Grade B – user exists but the account may not
• Grade C – user does not exist.
Typical list maker signatures would included forged headers, MIME type HTML for “Web-Bugs” (discussed later in this paper), valid URLs, a unique recipient and most importantly the “From” and “Reply-To” fields will match. List-makers require
Fig. 2: Example of an email following the RFC-2822 format.
some type of response from their email, which is why certain fields are valid (“Reply-To” and
Most spammers forge email headers, making
“From”). List-makers need to keep state of the
spam email difficult to trace back to the original
addresses that the actual response was from
source. There are a few fields (as shown in the
therefore they have unique recipients. With other
previous section) that can be forged. These are
forms of spam most headers are forged and
As can be seen by in the example above, there
• Subject / Date / Message / ID / Content
are numerous static signatures in spam mail
Table 1: Basic field inputs to an e-mail.
headers. Not only will this help analysts categoris spam, it can help filters accurately tag spam
The following fields cannot be forged but may
Table 1 and can be seen in the email header
mail. Header information contains far more
example in Fig. 2. There are numerous other fields
accurate signatures for filter rule development.
(“date and time”, “CC” and “BCC”) but we are
• Time stamps
– Time stamps are dependent
These rules are less likely to be bypassed as
only concerned with the basic format for now.
on the local host’s time clock which may be
compared to content filtering technology.
After the message is received by the local mail
• Originator IP address
– There are numerous
Spamming techniques, tools and methodology
server it is given an initial header (received by),
Spammers often use custom tools that they
relay mail from compromised hosts on the
develop themselves to send mail, bypass filters,
• Received from [sending-host’s-name]
internet (these techniques will be discussed
collect data and hide their true identities. This
later in the paper). Although the data may be accurate it may not necessarily lead back to
contributes largely to spam’s evolutionary
nature. During the 2004 research project many
commercial tools were discovered that offer
Identifying and classifying spam using mail
the same functionality. If the tools spammers
use are studied, much in the same fashion
for [recipient’s-address]; [date][time][time-
Spam has a versatile evolutionary nature, which
as a spammer probably studies a spam filter,
makes it difficult to define and classify. The market
it may be possible to find weaknesses in the
Two examples of such headers can be seen
continually finds new and innovative ways to
in Fig. 1 in red and green text. The message
bypass filters, evade authorities and eventually
all human and often act in a very predictable
then progresses through numerous mail relays
sell a service or product. It is essential to have an
where the message is given appended header
accurate definition and classification system if
strict methodology and only change if the
information. The mail is eventually received by the
the internet community wishes to rid themselves
need arises. This section will describe spammer
recipient’s mail server and stored in the recipient’
mail account (inbox) where it is downloaded by
techniques. Tools used by spammers and list-
the user. At this stage the message has received
For identification to be truly effective and makers fall into two classes:
a final header. Additional information given by
efficient mail analysts need to look at the most
the headers include message IDs, MIME version
static features of a spam email. The most static
properties of a single spam mail would be found in the mail headers.
This may seem like a simple classification
Multipurpose internet mail extensions (MIME)
system but within these two classes breed tools
is a standard for handling various types of For example the US Federal Trade Commission
of vast diversity. The tools encountered during
claims that in 2003 33% of all spam mails had
data. This essentially allows you to view mail as
the research project resembled those used by
false “From” headers. In actuality most spammers
either text or html. There are other MIME types
professional ethical hackers and virus writers
forge headers and these mismatches in header
defined which enable mail to carry numerous
alike. Many industry specialists view numerous
recreation can be used as static signatures for
attachment types. A message ID is assigned to
Trojans as specialised spammer tools.
a transaction by a particular host (the receiving
host or the ‘by’ host). These message IDs are
A good example is a list maker’s spam mail. A
used by administrators to track transactions in
list maker collects email addresses and grades
The three most commonly used tools for mining
rare in developed countries, or to transfer mail through hosts
These tools are used by list makers to mine email
data. The most commonly used technique is
email extraction, which is performed by software
programs called ‘robots’. These automated Web applications have
extractors browse internet pages and extract become a key focus area in
email addresses directly from web content. The
Centre for Democracy and Technology (2003)
rated public web posted addresses as the which allow them to send bulk
biggest source for spam address collectors.
Email extractors are very effective and widely
used, but they harvest data without discrimination.
Fig. 3: Example of a brute force on a mail server.
Email ‘brute forcers’ and ‘spiders’ seem to be
developed by list-makers targeting a more select
market space. The list-maker uses a domain anonymous. This particular name (e.g. sensepost.com) as a keyword in a
simple search queries, he then mines data from
numerous web search engines (e.g. google.
com). The process can be easily automated,
and aids the spammer who is interested in a
The spammer or list maker could also opt to brute
force the mail server. A simple host lookup reveals
the primary mail server for the specific domain.
Figs. 5 and 6 demonstrate this exact mail-form vulnerability
Thereafter the spammer or list-maker brute forces
common user names against the domain to verify valid users.
In Fig. 6 the spam mail origin would seem to point to the
List-makers often use far simpler techniques to
Fig. 4: Example of a chain letter.
mine additional valid email addresses. The chain
letter is an excellent example. Would the phrase
“Really it is an excellent example, It’s been on
The email content bypasses spam filters by
the news even on Oprah”, ring any bells? The
The third example of bulk mailing techniques
inserting HTML tags between known signatures
list maker gains the unsuspecting victim’s trust
is the transfer of mail via open proxies. In this
(e.g. viagra) once the HTML is interpreted by the
either using sympathy or a promise of rewards.
case a virus (much like the Sobig virus) will be
mail client the tags are either discarded or have
The email user is asked to add his friends’ email
used to implant a mail sending program on an
no effect on the spammers intended content.
addresses, forward the mail to 10 people or pass
innocent victim’s computer. The spammer will
along the petition to save the endangered pink
then remotely send spam via the compromised
elephant. The unsuspecting recipient does not
host. These machines are often referred to as
realise that he is actually aiding the list-maker to
Spammers bypass the MTA process and connect
“Zombie” hosts. Spammers use a technique
directly to the MX of the domain using “Direct-
called “Direct-to-MX” mailing, to send mail from
to-MX” software. This aids offending spammers
a grid of these distributed “Zombie” hosts. This
in hiding their activities from their ISP, forging mail
technique will be discussed in the next section.
There are numerous bulk mailing tools sold on
the market today, the cutting edge spammer
technology not only allows for bulk mailing but
helps hide the spammer’s true identity. Earlier
Bayesian filters weigh the presence of common
in the paper I mentioned techniques used by
spam signatures. This weight is measured
spammers to conceal their IP address from the
mail users. These techniques are often very against the entire mail content, therefore the
mail headers. This section will discuss three of
dynamic and evolve with changes in anti-spam
spammer hides non-spam related content in
technology. The paper will discuss a few of the
most recent and prevalent tactics used by
Random character strings (hash-busters)
• Mail via open proxy (compromised hosts).
Mis-spelling common filter signatures
use hash databases to identify known spam
Most ISPs will not tolerate a spammer’s traffic
Spammers attempt to bypass simple filter rules
messages. Spammers insert random character
load, disgruntled subscribers and spam victims
by creatively misspelling or disguising certain
strings into each message header to change the
often report spam mail back to the originating
words commonly used to tag spam by email
hash value of the message which would deceive
ISP. Spammers are forced to either to find spam-
such filters into believing the message is unique.
address, implying the mail Use secure mail-back scripts
address exists and is in use.
Instead of giving clients a list of contact addresses
use a mail-form. The script should be secure and the “mailto” addresses should not be posted as
due to a new take on an old technique called image-
firstname.lastname@example.org, and replace them with
making it difficult for some spam filters to identify.
If mail is caught and tagged as spam and the
return email address is valid (a mail sent by a list-maker), send a generic “user does not exist”
reply. This feature is often built in to many anti-
that Bayesian filters, ISP spam and email technologies. Be careful not to
Fig. 5: Example of a vulnerable mail form on the internet.
bounce all spam messages, this could result in a
not going to prevent spam from getting to your mailbox.
This is a practice often suggested by many
security professionals. With regards to spam, it will
reduce spam. Using the enable you to stop “web-bugs” and other forms
section will discuss proactive techniques to reduce spam.
Avoid giving out your email address to companies
We believe that proactive on the internet
controls integrated with If given the choice, opt not to give internet reactive defences lead to companies your email address. Research a significant decrease in has shown that many well known internet spam.
company’s databases are bought by list-makers. Setup a “spam” email account (nithen_no_
email@example.com), and if you truly have no
choice but to give an email address, use the
your email address from spam address rather than your current email
Fig. 6: The post parameters for the mail form shown above.
discussed common tools used by list makers to mine
Update filter and antivirus signatures regularly
Updating the above-mentioned signatures will
help tag list maker emails and ensure that you are
never the victim of a “mail via open proxy” virus.
Disguise email addresses
Knowing the enemy is a prerequisite to successful
When posting or displaying victory. Spam costs businesses and the internet your email address on the a great deal of resources, and may in the near internet, disguise it to ensure
future threaten the very existence of email. This
paper has acquainted the reader with spamming
“spiders “or “robots” (e.g. technology and methodology. This will empower firstname.lastname@example.org
the reader to initiate proactive spam controls to
– example at domain dot help fight the epidemic.
com) you need to HTML Acknowledgements
This article is based on a paper submitted
Fig. 7: The “Direct-to-MX” technique.
Embedding the recipient’s email address with a
(www.infosecsa.co.za) in 2004, while the author
On your corporate web site it is often necessary
was at SensePost (www.sensepost.com). He would
This technique is commonly used by list-makers.
to provide clients with email contact addresses.
like to thank and acknowledge both SensePost and Information Security South Africa.
The embedded address helps them record Using pictures of the addresses rather than text mail responses. If there is indeed a response
would protect your contacts from automated
the embedded email is graded as a class “A”
Tel 072 698 9866, email@example.com ☐
Nutritional value of Chlorella vulgaris : Effects ofa Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals, Research Unit of Nutritional Physiology, Wilhelm Stahl Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany b Institute for Cereal Processing Ltd. (IGV), Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 40-41, 14558 Nuthetal-Rehbr¨ucke, Germany Received 1 October 2004; received in revised form 14 February 2006; accepte
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