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Delta Extension Resources
Delta Academic Objectives: Reading Skills
How leadership is changing in organizations
In the future, a more diverse selection of people will
Teams are being used instead of individuals; more
be in leadership roles, spanning a wider range of
women are leaders; cross-cultural differences are being
nationalities and races. Leadership research will
therefore have to consider how cross-cultural issues
Leaders as coaches
affect leadership in a global community.
Gender and leadership
main point 3
supporting ideas 4
background knowledge 6
implies less hands-on control than
The writer has used facts and
opinions to support
, which involves close monitoring.
their argument, e.g. research into male and female
A business leader is similar to a sports coach, as they
leadership (fact); metaphors of sports coaches and
would both select team members, provide direction,
how they are similar to the leaders of today (opinion).
train the team members in specific skills, help them
The main point of the text is that leadership is
access whatever information or resources they need,
and solve any issues or conflicts that occur.
Examples (e.g. the sports coach) are given as
No, particularly those who have been using the
supporting ideas to illustrate the main point.
Research conducted in the area of leadership
Most leadership theories are based on men.
That the reader has an understanding of leadership,
Women involve employees in decisions more than
men because they have stronger interpersonal skills.
It may be biased towards a specific nation or race
They may also encounter resistance to their leadership
(e.g. white Americans), but this is acknowledged in
and so they try to avoid any hostility by involving
the final section, Cross-cultural leadership
The text is organized into three sections detailing the
Due to the prized characteristic of collectivism in
Japan, a Japanese businessman working in America
Yes; for example, ‘organizations becoming less
may find it difficult to recognize the importance of
hierarchical’ is defined in paragraph 2.
individual contributions, and the differences between
And many other organizations are attempting to
become less hierarchical – that is, to eliminate the old-
There is now a more diverse group of people (e.g.
fashioned command-and-control mentality often
African Americans, Asian Americans, etc.) in
inherent in bureaucratic organizations and to
leadership roles, and so current theories and models
independently. (Leaders as coaches
Management methods that control are now outdated
… a coaching perspective would call for the leader to
and reflect a ‘command-and-control’ mentality which
help select team members and other new employees,
may not be motivating or empowering for the
to provide some general direction, to help train and
develop the team and the skills of its members, and to
The main role of a modern manager is to supervise the
help them get the information and other resources
employees and act as a facilitator to enable them to do
they need. The leader may also have to help resolve
their job properly. They therefore need to provide
conflict among team members and mediate other
relevant training, guidance and information, as well as
disputes that arise. (Leaders as coaches
be available to assist when conflicts or problems arise.
Of course, some managers long accustomed to the
Male and female leaders differ in terms of the extent to
traditional approach may have trouble changing to a
which other people are involved in the decision-
coaching role. But others seem to make the transition
making process. Due to the fact that men may have
with little or no difficulty. (Leaders as coaches
weaker interpersonal skills than women, men may
One possibility is that women may tend to have
make more decisions independently. In contrast,
stronger interpersonal skills than men and are hence
women tend to include employees in this process.
able to better understand how to effectively involve
They may also have to include others when making
others in making decisions. Men, on the other hand,
decisions to avoid any hostility caused by a woman
may have weaker interpersonal skills and thus have a
tendency to rely on their own judgement. (Gender andleadership
ONLINE MATERIALS: ANSWER KEY
But as African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics
and members of other ethnic groups achieveleadership positions, … (Cross-cultural leadership
ONLINE MATERIALS: ANSWER KEY
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