Delta Extension Resources
Delta Academic Objectives: Reading Skills
2Answer key
1 1 How leadership is changing in organizations
4 In the future, a more diverse selection of people will
2 Teams are being used instead of individuals; more
be in leadership roles, spanning a wider range of women are leaders; cross-cultural differences are being nationalities and races. Leadership research will therefore have to consider how cross-cultural issues 3 a Leaders as coaches
affect leadership in a global community. b Gender and leadership
4 2 main point 3 supporting ideas 4 evidence
c Cross-cultural leadership
5 background knowledge 6 biased 7 organized
2 1 a (supervise)
8 defined
Note: oversee implies less hands-on control than 5 1 The writer has used facts and opinions to support
supervise, which involves close monitoring.
their argument, e.g. research into male and female 2 A business leader is similar to a sports coach, as they
leadership (fact); metaphors of sports coaches and would both select team members, provide direction, how they are similar to the leaders of today (opinion). train the team members in specific skills, help them 2 The main point of the text is that leadership is
access whatever information or resources they need, and solve any issues or conflicts that occur. 3 Examples (e.g. the sports coach) are given as
3 No, particularly those who have been using the
supporting ideas to illustrate the main point. 4 Research conducted in the area of leadership
4 Most leadership theories are based on men.
5 That the reader has an understanding of leadership,
5 Women involve employees in decisions more than
men because they have stronger interpersonal skills.
6 It may be biased towards a specific nation or race
They may also encounter resistance to their leadership (e.g. white Americans), but this is acknowledged in and so they try to avoid any hostility by involving the final section, Cross-cultural leadership. 7 The text is organized into three sections detailing the
6 Due to the prized characteristic of collectivism in
Japan, a Japanese businessman working in America 8 Yes; for example, ‘organizations becoming less
may find it difficult to recognize the importance of hierarchical’ is defined in paragraph 2. individual contributions, and the differences between 7 1 And many other organizations are attempting to
become less hierarchical – that is, to eliminate the old- 7 There is now a more diverse group of people (e.g.
fashioned command-and-control mentality often African Americans, Asian Americans, etc.) in inherent in bureaucratic organizations and to leadership roles, and so current theories and models independently. (Leaders as coaches, §1) 3 1 Management methods that control are now outdated
2 … a coaching perspective would call for the leader to
and reflect a ‘command-and-control’ mentality which help select team members and other new employees, may not be motivating or empowering for the to provide some general direction, to help train and develop the team and the skills of its members, and to 2 The main role of a modern manager is to supervise the
help them get the information and other resources employees and act as a facilitator to enable them to do they need. The leader may also have to help resolve their job properly. They therefore need to provide conflict among team members and mediate other relevant training, guidance and information, as well as disputes that arise. (Leaders as coaches, §3) be available to assist when conflicts or problems arise.
3 Of course, some managers long accustomed to the
3 Male and female leaders differ in terms of the extent to
traditional approach may have trouble changing to a which other people are involved in the decision- coaching role. But others seem to make the transition making process. Due to the fact that men may have with little or no difficulty. (Leaders as coaches, §4) weaker interpersonal skills than women, men may 4 One possibility is that women may tend to have
make more decisions independently. In contrast, stronger interpersonal skills than men and are hence women tend to include employees in this process.
able to better understand how to effectively involve They may also have to include others when making others in making decisions. Men, on the other hand, decisions to avoid any hostility caused by a woman may have weaker interpersonal skills and thus have a tendency to rely on their own judgement. (Gender andleadership, §3) ONLINE MATERIALS: ANSWER KEY
2 Leadership
5 But as African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics
and members of other ethnic groups achieveleadership positions, … (Cross-cultural leadership, §2) ONLINE MATERIALS: ANSWER KEY
2 Leadership


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