New pharmacy levitra australia online viagradirect.net with a lot of generic and brand medications with cheap price and fast delivery.

Arnone.de.unifi.it

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS
POLICY STATEMENT
Organizational Principles to Guide and Define the Child Health Care System and/or Improve the Health of All Children Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk
ABSTRACT.
Considerable advances have occurred in
tions are consistent with the goals and objectives of recent years in the scientific knowledge of the benefits of
Healthy People 2010,4 the Department of Health and breastfeeding, the mechanisms underlying these bene-
Human Services’ HHS Blueprint for Action on Breastfeed- fits, and in the clinical management of breastfeeding.
ing,5 and the United States Breastfeeding Committee’s This policy statement on breastfeeding replaces the 1997
Breastfeeding in the United States: A National Agenda.6 policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics
This statement provides the foundation for issues and reflects this newer knowledge and the supporting
publications. The benefits of breastfeeding for the in-

related to breastfeeding and lactation management fant, the mother, and the community are summarized,
for other AAP publications including the New Moth- and recommendations to guide the pediatrician and other
er’s Guide to Breastfeeding7 and chapters dealing with health care professionals in assisting mothers in the ini-
breastfeeding in the AAP/American College of Ob- tiation and maintenance of breastfeeding for healthy
stetricians and Gynecologists Guidelines for Perinatal term infants and high-risk infants are presented. The
Care,8 the Pediatric Nutrition Handbook,9 the Red policy statement delineates various ways in which pedi-
Book,10 and the Handbook of Pediatric Environmental atricians can promote, protect, and support breastfeeding
not only in their individual practices but also in the
hospital, medical school, community, and nation. Pedi-

atrics 2005;115:496–506; breast, breastfeeding, breast milk,
human milk, lactation.

Child Health Benefits
Human milk is species-specific, and all substitute feeding preparations differ markedly from it, making ABBREVIATIONS. AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; WIC,Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; human milk uniquely superior for infant feeding.12 CMV, cytomegalovirus; G6PD, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Exclusive breastfeeding is the reference or normativemodel against which all alternative feeding methods INTRODUCTION
must be measured with regard to growth, health, Extensive research using improved epidemio- development,andallothershort-andlong-termout- logic methods and modern laboratory tech- comes. In addition, human milk-fed premature in- niques documents diverse and compelling ad- fants receive significant benefits with respect to host vantages for infants, mothers, families, and society protection and improved developmental outcomes from breastfeeding and use of human milk for infant compared with formula-fed premature infants.13–22 feeding.1 These advantages include health, nutri- From studies in preterm and term infants, the fol- tional, immunologic, developmental, psychologic, lowing outcomes have been documented.
social, economic, and environmental benefits. In1997, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published the policy statement Breastfeeding and the Research in developed and developing countries Use of Human Milk.2 Since then, significant advances of the world, including middle-class populations in in science and clinical medicine have occurred. This developed countries, provides strong evidence that revision cites substantial new research on the impor- human milk feeding decreases the incidence and/or tance of breastfeeding and sets forth principles to severity of a wide range of infectious diseases23 in- guide pediatricians and other health care profession- cluding bacterial meningitis,24,25 bacteremia,25,26 di- als in assisting women and children in the initiation arrhea,27–33 respiratory tract infection,22,33–40 necro- and maintenance of breastfeeding. The ways pedia- tizing enterocolitis,20,21 otitis media,27,41–45 urinary tricians can protect, promote, and support breast- tract infection,46,47 and late-onset sepsis in preterm feeding in their individual practices, hospitals, med- infants.17,20 In addition, postneonatal infant mortal- ical schools, and communities are delineated, and the ity rates in the United States are reduced by 21% in central role of the pediatrician in coordinating breast- feeding management and providing a medical homefor the child is emphasized.3 These recommenda- Some studies suggest decreased rates of sudden infant death syndrome in the first year of life49–55 and doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2491PEDIATRICS (ISSN 0031 4005). Copyright 2005 by the American Acad- reduction in incidence of insulin-dependent (type 1) and non–insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes melli- tus,56–59 lymphoma, leukemia, and Hodgkin dis- mothers who are using drugs of abuse (“street ease,60–62 overweight and obesity,19,63–70 hypercho- drugs”); and mothers who have herpes simplex le- lesterolemia,71 and asthma36–39 in older children and sions on a breast (infant may feed from other breast adults who were breastfed, compared with individ- if clear of lesions). Appropriate information about uals who were not breastfed. Additional research in infection-control measures should be provided to In the United States, mothers who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have Breastfeeding has been associated with slightly en- been advised not to breastfeed their infants.112 In hanced performance on tests of cognitive develop- developing areas of the world with populations at ment.14,15,72–80 Breastfeeding during a painful proce- increased risk of other infectious diseases and nutri- dure such as a heel-stick for newborn screening tional deficiencies resulting in increased infant death rates, the mortality risks associated with artificialfeeding may outweigh the possible risks of acquiring Maternal Health Benefits
HIV infection.113,114 One study in Africa detailed in 2 Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lac- reports115,116 found that exclusive breastfeeding for tation are also described for mothers.83 The benefits the first 3 to 6 months after birth by HIV-infected include decreased postpartum bleeding and more mothers did not increase the risk of HIV transmis- rapid uterine involution attributable to increased sion to the infant, whereas infants who received concentrations of oxytocin,84 decreased menstrual mixed feedings (breastfeeding with other foods or blood loss and increased child spacing attributable to milks) had a higher rate of HIV infection compared lactational amenorrhea,85 earlier return to prepreg- with infants who were exclusively formula-fed.
nancy weight,86 decreased risk of breast cancer,87–92 Women in the United States who are HIV-positive decreased risk of ovarian cancer,93 and possibly de- should not breastfeed their offspring. Additional creased risk of hip fractures and osteoporosis in the studies are needed before considering a change from Community Benefits
CONDITIONS THAT ARE NOT
In addition to specific health advantages for in- CONTRAINDICATIONS TO BREASTFEEDING
fants and mothers, economic, family, and environ- Certain conditions have been shown to be compat- mental benefits have been described. These benefits ible with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is not contra- include the potential for decreased annual health indicated for infants born to mothers who are hepa- care costs of $3.6 billion in the United States97,98; de- titis B surface antigen–positive,111 mothers who are creased costs for public health programs such as the infected with hepatitis C virus (persons with hepati- Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, tis C virus antibody or hepatitis C virus-RNA–posi- Infants, and Children (WIC)99; decreased parental em- tive blood),111 mothers who are febrile (unless cause ployee absenteeism and associated loss of family in- is a contraindication outlined in the previous sec- come; more time for attention to siblings and other tion),117 mothers who have been exposed to low- family matters as a result of decreased infant illness; level environmental chemical agents,118,119 and decreased environmental burden for disposal of for- mothers who are seropositive carriers of cytomega- mula cans and bottles; and decreased energy demands lovirus (CMV) (not recent converters if the infant is for production and transport of artificial feeding prod- term).111 Decisions about breastfeeding of very low ucts.100–102 These savings for the country and for fam- birth weight infants (birth weight Ͻ1500 g) by moth- ilies would be offset to some unknown extent by in- ers known to be CMV-seropositive should be made creased costs for physician and lactation consultations, with consideration of the potential benefits of human increased office-visit time, and cost of breast pumps milk versus the risk of CMV transmission.120,121 and other equipment, all of which should be covered Freezing and pasteurization can significantly de- by insurance payments to providers and families.
Tobacco smoking by mothers is not a contraindi- CONTRAINDICATIONS TO BREASTFEEDING
cation to breastfeeding, but health care professionals Although breastfeeding is optimal for infants, should advise all tobacco-using mothers to avoid there are a few conditions under which breastfeeding smoking within the home and to make every effort to may not be in the best interest of the infant. Breast- wean themselves from tobacco as rapidly as possi- feeding is contraindicated in infants with classic galactosemia (galactose 1-phosphate uridyltrans- Breastfeeding mothers should avoid the use of ferase deficiency)103; mothers who have active un- alcoholic beverages, because alcohol is concentrated treated tuberculosis disease or are human T-cell lym- in breast milk and its use can inhibit milk produc- photropic virus type I– or II–positive104,105; mothers tion. An occasional celebratory single, small alcoholic who are receiving diagnostic or therapeutic radioac- drink is acceptable, but breastfeeding should be tive isotopes or have had exposure to radioactive materials (for as long as there is radioactivity in the For the great majority of newborns with jaundice milk)106–108; mothers who are receiving antimetabo- and hyperbilirubinemia, breastfeeding can and lites or chemotherapeutic agents or a small number should be continued without interruption. In rare of other medications until they clear the milk109,110; instances of severe hyperbilirubinemia, breastfeed- Breastfeeding Rates for Infants in the United States: Any (Exclusive) NA indicates that the data are not available.
ing may need to be interrupted temporarily for a lack of guidance and encouragement from health THE CHALLENGE
Data indicate that the rate of initiation and dura- RECOMMENDATIONS ON BREASTFEEDING FOR
tion of breastfeeding in the United States are well HEALTHY TERM INFANTS
below the Healthy People 2010 goals (see Table 1).4,125 1. Pediatricians and other health care professionals Furthermore, many of the mothers counted as breast- should recommend human milk for all infants in feeding were supplementing their infants with for- whom breastfeeding is not specifically contrain- mula during the first 6 months of the infant’s life.5,126 dicated and provide parents with complete, cur- Although breastfeeding initiation rates have in- rent information on the benefits and techniques creased steadily since 1990, exclusive breastfeeding of breastfeeding to ensure that their feeding de- initiation rates have shown little or no increase over that same period of time. Similarly, 6 months after • When direct breastfeeding is not possible, ex- birth, the proportion of infants who are exclusively breastfed has increased at a much slower rate than ed.150,151 If a known contraindication to breast- that of infants who receive mixed feedings.125 The feeding is identified, consider whether the AAP Section on Breastfeeding, American College of contraindication may be temporary, and if so, Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Acad- advise pumping to maintain milk production.
emy of Family Physicians, Academy of Breastfeeding Before advising against breastfeeding or rec- Medicine, World Health Organization, United Na- tions Children’s Fund, and many other health orga- benefits of breastfeeding against the risks of nizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life.‡2,127–130 Exclusive breastfeeding 2. Peripartum policies and practices that optimize is defined as an infant’s consumption of human milk breastfeeding initiation and maintenance should with no supplementation of any type (no water, no juice, no nonhuman milk, and no foods) except for • Education of both parents before and after vitamins, minerals, and medications.131 Exclusive delivery of the infant is an essential compo- breastfeeding has been shown to provide improved nent of successful breastfeeding. Support and protection against many diseases and to increase the encouragement by the father can greatly assist likelihood of continued breastfeeding for at least the the mother during the initiation process and Obstacles to initiation and continuation of breast- arise. Consistent with appropriate care for the feeding include insufficient prenatal education about mother, minimize or modify the course of ma- breastfeeding132,133; disruptive hospital policies and ternal medications that have the potential for practices134; inappropriate interruption of breast- altering the infant’s alertness and feeding be- feeding135; early hospital discharge in some popula- havior.152,153 Avoid procedures that may inter- tions136; lack of timely routine follow-up care and fere with breastfeeding or that may traumatize postpartum home health visits137; maternal employ- the infant, including unnecessary, excessive, and ment138,139 (especially in the absence of workplace overvigorous suctioning of the oral cavity, facilities and support for breastfeeding)140; lack of esophagus, and airways to avoid oropharyngeal family and broad societal support141; media por- mucosal injury that may lead to aversive feeding trayal of bottle feeding as normative142; commercial promotion of infant formula through distribution of 3. Healthy infants should be placed and remain in hospital discharge packs, coupons for free or dis- direct skin-to-skin contact with their mothers im- counted formula, and some television and general mediately after delivery until the first feeding is magazine advertising143,144; misinformation; and accomplished.156–158• The alert, healthy newborn infant is capable of latching on to a breast without specific assis- ‡ There is a difference of opinion among AAP experts on this matter. The tance within the first hour after birth.156 Dry Section on Breastfeeding acknowledges that the Committee on Nutritionsupports introduction of complementary foods between 4 and 6 months of the infant, assign Apgar scores, and perform age when safe and nutritious complementary foods are available.
the initial physical assessment while the infant is with the mother. The mother is an optimal clearly communicated to both parents and to heat source for the infant.159,160 Delay weigh- ing, measuring, bathing, needle-sticks, and 8. All breastfeeding newborn infants should be eye prophylaxis until after the first feeding is seen by a pediatrician or other knowledgeable and completed. Infants affected by maternal med- experienced health care professional at 3 to 5 days ications may require assistance for effective of age as recommended by the AAP.124,176,177 latch-on.156 Except under unusual circum- • This visit should include infant weight; phys- stances, the newborn infant should remain ical examination, especially for jaundice and with the mother throughout the recovery pe- hydration; maternal history of breast problems (painful feedings, engorgement); infant elimi- 4. Supplements (water, glucose water, formula, and nation patterns (expect 3–5 urines and 3– 4 other fluids) should not be given to breastfeeding stools per day by 3–5 days of age; 4 – 6 urines newborn infants unless ordered by a physician and 3– 6 stools per day by 5–7 days of age); when a medical indication exists.148,162–165 and a formal, observed evaluation of breast- 5. Pacifier use is best avoided during the initiation feeding, including position, latch, and milk of breastfeeding and used only after breastfeed- transfer. Weight loss in the infant of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible • In some infants early pacifier use may interfere breastfeeding problems and requires more in- with establishment of good breastfeeding prac- tensive evaluation of breastfeeding and possi- tices, whereas in others it may indicate the pres- ble intervention to correct problems and im- ence of a breastfeeding problem that requires 9. Breastfeeding infants should have a second am- • This recommendation does not contraindicate bulatory visit at 2 to 3 weeks of age so that the pacifier use for nonnutritive sucking and oral health care professional can monitor weight gain training of premature infants and other special and provide additional support and encourage- ment to the mother during this critical period.
6. During the early weeks of breastfeeding, moth- 10. Pediatricians and parents should be aware that ers should be encouraged to have 8 to 12 feed- exclusive breastfeeding is sufficient to supportoptimal growth and development for approxi- ings at the breast every 24 hours, offering the mately the first 6 months of life‡ and provides breast whenever the infant shows early signs of continuing protection against diarrhea and respi- hunger such as increased alertness, physical ac- ratory tract infection.30,34,128,178–184 Breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of • Crying is a late indicator of hunger.171 Appro- life and beyond for as long as mutually desired priate initiation of breastfeeding is facilitated by continuous rooming-in throughout the day • Complementary foods rich in iron should be and night.172 The mother should offer both breasts at each feeding for as long a period as months of age.186–187 Preterm and low birth the infant remains at the breast.173 At each weight infants and infants with hematologic feed the first breast offered should be alter- disorders or infants who had inadequate iron nated so that both breasts receive equal stim- stores at birth generally require iron supple- ulation and draining. In the early weeks after mentation before 6 months of age.148,188–192 Iron may be administered while continuing aroused to feed if 4 hours have elapsed since • Unique needs or feeding behaviors of individ- • After breastfeeding is well established, the fre- ual infants may indicate a need for introduc- quency of feeding may decline to approxi- tion of complementary foods as early as 4 mately 8 times per 24 hours, but the infant months of age, whereas other infants may not may increase the frequency again with growth be ready to accept other foods until approxi- spurts or when an increase in milk volume is • Introduction of complementary feedings be- 7. Formal evaluation of breastfeeding, including fore 6 months of age generally does not in- observation of position, latch, and milk transfer, crease total caloric intake or rate of growth should be undertaken by trained caregivers at least and only substitutes foods that lack the pro- twice daily and fully documented in the record during each day in the hospital after birth.174,175 • During the first 6 months of age, even in hot • Encouraging the mother to record the time climates, water and juice are unnecessary for and duration of each breastfeeding, as well as breastfed infants and may introduce contami- urine and stool output during the early days of breastfeeding in the hospital and the first • Increased duration of breastfeeding confers weeks at home, helps to facilitate the evalua- significant health and developmental benefits tion process. Problems identified in the hospi- for the child and the mother, especially in tal should be addressed at that time, and a delaying return of fertility (thereby promoting • There is no upper limit to the duration of feeding alternative for infants whose mothers are breastfeeding and no evidence of psychologic unable or unwilling to provide their own milk.
Human milk banks in North America adhere to into the third year of life or longer.197 national guidelines for quality control of screening • Infants weaned before 12 months of age and testing of donors and pasteurize all milk be- should not receive cow’s milk but should re- fore distribution.206–208 Fresh human milk from unscreened donors is not recommended because 11. All breastfed infants should receive 1.0 mg of of the risk of transmission of infectious agents.
vitamin K1 oxide intramuscularly after the first • Precautions should be followed for infants with feeding is completed and within the first 6 hours glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) defi- ciency. G6PD deficiency has been associated with • Oral vitamin K is not recommended. It may an increased risk of hemolysis, hyperbiliru- not provide the adequate stores of vitamin K binemia, and kernicterus.209 Mothers who breast- necessary to prevent hemorrhage later in in- feed infants with known or suspected G6PD defi- fancy in breastfed infants unless repeated ciency should not ingest fava beans or medications doses are administered during the first 4 such as nitrofurantoin, primaquine phosphate, or phenazopyridine hydrochloride, which are known 12. All breastfed infants should receive 200 IU of to induce hemolysis in deficient individuals.210,211 oral vitamin D drops daily beginning during thefirst 2 months of life and continuing until the ROLE OF PEDIATRICIANS AND OTHER HEALTH
daily consumption of vitamin D-fortified for- CARE PROFESSIONALS IN PROTECTING,
PROMOTING, AND SUPPORTING
• Although human milk contains small amounts BREASTFEEDING
of vitamin D, it is not enough to prevent rick- Many pediatricians and other health care profes- ets. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B wave- sionals have made great efforts in recent years to lengths from sunlight is the usual mechanism support and improve breastfeeding success by fol- for production of vitamin D. However, signif- lowing the principles and guidance provided by icant risk of sunburn (short-term) and skin the AAP,2 the American College of Obstetricians cancer (long-term) attributable to sunlight ex- and Gynecologists,127 the American Academy of posure, especially in younger children, makes Family Physicians,128 and many other organiza- it prudent to counsel against exposure to sun- tions.5,6,8,130,133,142,162 The following guidelines light. Furthermore, sunscreen decreases vita- summarize these concepts for providing an opti- 13. Supplementary fluoride should not be provided • From 6 months to 3 years of age, the decision • Promote, support, and protect breastfeeding en- whether to provide fluoride supplementation thusiastically. In consideration of the extensively should be made on the basis of the fluoride published evidence for improved health and de- concentration in the water supply (fluoride velopmental outcomes in breastfed infants and supplementation generally is not needed un- their mothers, a strong position on behalf of less the concentration in the drinking water is Ͻ0.3 ppm) and in other food, fluid sources, • Promote breastfeeding as a cultural norm and en- courage family and societal support for breast- 14. Mother and infant should sleep in proximity to each other to facilitate breastfeeding.203 • Recognize the effect of cultural diversity on breast- 15. Should hospitalization of the breastfeeding feeding attitudes and practices and encourage mother or infant be necessary, every effort variations, if appropriate, that effectively promote should be made to maintain breastfeeding, pref- and support breastfeeding in different cultures.
erably directly, or pumping the breasts and feed- Education
• Become knowledgeable and skilled in the physiol- ogy and the current clinical management of breast- ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
HIGH-RISK INFANTS
• Encourage development of formal training in • Hospitals and physicians should recommend hu- breastfeeding and lactation in medical schools, in man milk for premature and other high-risk in- residency and fellowship training programs, and fants either by direct breastfeeding and/or using the mother’s own expressed milk.13 Maternal sup- • Use every opportunity to provide age-appropriate port and education on breastfeeding and milk ex- breastfeeding education to children and adults in pression should be provided from the earliest pos- the medical setting and in outreach programs for sible time. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding should be encouraged as earlyas feasible.204,205 Fortification of expressed human Clinical Practice
milk is indicated for many very low birth weight • Work collaboratively with the obstetric commu- infants.13 Banked human milk may be a suitable nity to ensure that women receive accurate and sufficient information throughout the perinatal pe- • Encourage employers to provide appropriate facil- riod to make a fully informed decision about in- ities and adequate time in the workplace for breastfeeding and/or milk expression.
• Work collaboratively with the dental community • Encourage child care providers to support breast- to ensure that women are encouraged to continue feeding and the use of expressed human milk pro- to breastfeed and use good oral health practices.
Infants should receive an oral health-risk assess- • Support the efforts of parents and the courts to ment by the pediatrician between 6 months and 1 ensure continuation of breastfeeding in separation year of age and/or referred to a dentist for evalu- ation and treatment if at risk of dental caries or • Provide counsel to adoptive mothers who decide to breastfeed through induced lactation, a process • Promote hospital policies and procedures that fa- requiring professional support and encourage- cilitate breastfeeding. Work actively toward elim- inating hospital policies and practices that discour- • Encourage development and approval of govern- age breastfeeding (eg, promotion of infant formula mental policies and legislation that are supportive in hospitals including infant formula discharge of a mother’s choice to breastfeed.
packs and formula discount coupons, separationof mother and infant, inappropriate infant feeding Research
images, and lack of adequate encouragement and • Promote continued basic and clinical research in support of breastfeeding by all health care staff).
the field of breastfeeding. Encourage investigators Encourage hospitals to provide in-depth training and funding agencies to pursue studies that fur- in breastfeeding for all health care staff (including ther delineate the scientific understandings of lac- physicians) and have lactation experts available at tation and breastfeeding that lead to improved clinical practice in this medical field.216 • Provide effective breast pumps and private lacta- tion areas for all breastfeeding mothers (patients CONCLUSIONS
and staff) in ambulatory and inpatient areas of the Although economic, cultural, and political pres- sures often confound decisions about infant feeding, • Develop office practices that promote and support the AAP firmly adheres to the position that breast- breastfeeding by using the guidelines and materi- feeding ensures the best possible health as well as the als provided by the AAP Breastfeeding Promotion best developmental and psychosocial outcomes for in Physicians’ Office Practices program.214 the infant. Enthusiastic support and involvement of • Become familiar with local breastfeeding resources pediatricians in the promotion and practice of breast- (eg, WIC clinics, breastfeeding medical and nurs- feeding is essential to the achievement of optimal ing specialists, lactation educators and consult- infant and child health, growth, and development.
ants, lay support groups, and breast-pump rentalstations) so that patients can be referred appropri- ately.215 When specialized breastfeeding services are used, the essential role of the pediatrician as the infant’s primary health care professional within the framework of the medical home needs • Encourage adequate, routine insurance coverage for necessary breastfeeding services and supplies, including the time required by pediatricians and other licensed health care professionals to assess and manage breastfeeding and the cost for the • Develop and maintain effective communication and coordination with other health care profes- sionals to ensure optimal breastfeeding education, support, and counseling. AAP and WIC breast- feeding coordinators can facilitate collaborative re- lationships and develop programs in the commu-nity and in professional organizations for support • Advise mothers to continue their breast self-exam- inations on a monthly basis throughout lactationand to continue to have annual clinical breast ex- REFERENCES
1. Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, et al. Promotion of Breastfeed- ing Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic ofBelarus. JAMA. 2001;285:413– 420 2. American Academy of Pediatrics, Work Group on Breastfeeding.
• Encourage the media to portray breastfeeding as Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 1997;100: 3. American Academy of Pediatrics, Medical Home Initiatives for Chil- 28. Howie PW, Forsyth JS, Ogston SA, Clark A, Florey CD. Protective dren With Special Needs Project Advisory Committee. The medical effect of breast feeding against infection. BMJ. 1990;300:11–16 home. Pediatrics. 2002;110:184 –186 29. Kramer MS, Guo T, Platt RW, et al. Infant growth and health outcomes 4. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: associated with 3 compared with 6 mo of exclusive breastfeeding. Am J Conference EditionVolumes I and II. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the 30. Popkin BM, Adair L, Akin JS, Black R, Briscoe J, Flieger W. Breast- Assistant Secretary for Health; 2000:47– 48 feeding and diarrheal morbidity. Pediatrics. 1990;86:874 – 882 5. US Department of Health and Human Services. HHS Blueprint for 31. Beaudry M, Dufour R, Marcoux S. Relation between infant feeding Action on Breastfeeding. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and and infections during the first six months of life. J Pediatr. 1995;126: Human Services, Office on Women’s Health; 2000 6. United States Breastfeeding Committee. Breastfeeding in the United 32. Bhandari N, Bahl R, Mazumdar S, Martines J, Black RE, Bhan MK.
States: A National Agenda. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Effect of community-based promotion of exclusive breastfeeding on Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Ma- diarrhoeal illness and growth: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Infant Feeding Study Group. Lancet. 2003;361:1418 –1423 7. American Academy of Pediatrics. New Mother’s Guide to Breastfeeding.
33. Lopez-Alarcon M, Villalpando S, Fajardo A. Breast-feeding lowers the Meek JY, ed. New York, NY: Bantam Books; 2002 frequency and duration of acute respiratory infection and diarrhea in 8. American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians infants under six months of age. J Nutr. 1997;127:436 – 443 and Gynecologists. Guidelines for Perinatal Care. Gilstrap LC, Oh W, 34. Bachrach VR, Schwarz E, Bachrach LR. Breastfeeding and the risk of eds. 5th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; hospitalization for respiratory disease in infancy: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:237–243 9. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Pediatric 35. Oddy WH, Sly PD, de Klerk NH, et al. Breast feeding and respiratory Nutrition Handbook. Kleinman RE, ed. 5th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: morbidity in infancy: a birth cohort study. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88: 10. American Academy of Pediatrics. Red Book: 2003 Report of the Committee 36. Chulada PC, Arbes SJ Jr, Dunson D, Zeldin DC. Breast-feeding and the on Infectious Diseases. Pickering LK, ed. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: prevalence of asthma and wheeze in children: analyses from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 –1994. J Al- 11. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental lergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:328 –336 Health. Handbook of Pediatric Environmental Health. Etzel RA, Balk SJ, 37. Oddy WH, Peat JK, de Klerk NH. Maternal asthma, infant feeding, and eds. 2nd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; the risk of asthma in childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110:65– 67 38. Gdalevich M, Mimouni D, Mimouni M. Breast-feeding and the risk of 12. Hambraeus L, Forsum E, Lo¨nnerdal B. Nutritional aspects of breast bronchial asthma in childhood: a systematic review with meta-analysis milk and cow’s milk formulas. In: Hambraeus L, Hanson L, MacFar- of prospective studies. J Pediatr. 2001;139:261–266 lane H, eds. Symposium on Food and Immunology. Stockholm, Sweden: 39. Oddy WH, Holt PG, Sly PD, et al. Association between breast feeding and asthma in 6 year old children: findings of a prospective birth 13. Schanler RJ. The use of human milk for premature infants. Pediatr Clin cohort study. BMJ. 1999;319:815– 819 40. Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM, Martinez FD. Relationship of 14. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ. Randomised trial of early diet in preterm infant feeding to recurrent wheezing at age 6 years. Arch Pediatr babies and later intelligence quotient. BMJ. 1998;317:1481–1487 15. Horwood LJ, Darlow BA, Mogridge N. Breast milk feeding and cog- 41. Saarinen UM. Prolonged breast feeding as prophylaxis for recurrent nitive ability at 7– 8 years. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2001;84: otitis media. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1982;71:567–571 42. Duncan B, Ey J, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Taussig LM.
16. Amin SB, Merle KS, Orlando MS, Dalzell LE, Guillet R. Brainstem Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 months protects against otitis maturation in premature infants as a function of enteral feeding type.
media. Pediatrics. 1993;91:867– 872 43. Owen MJ, Baldwin CD, Swank PR, Pannu AK, Johnson DL, Howie 17. Hylander MA, Strobino DM, Dhanireddy R. Human milk feedings and VM. Relation of infant feeding practices, cigarette smoke exposure, infection among very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 1998;102(3).
and group child care to the onset and duration of otitis media with Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/102/3/e38 18. Hylander MA, Strobino DM, Pezzullo JC, Dhanireddy R. Associa- effusion in the first two years of life. J Pediatr. 1993;123:702–711 tion of human milk feedings with a reduction in retinopathy of 44. Paradise JL, Elster BA, Tan L. Evidence in infants with cleft palate that prematurity among very low birthweight infants. J Perinatol. 2001; breast milk protects against otitis media. Pediatrics. 1994;94:853– 860 45. Aniansson G, Alm B, Andersson B, et al. A prospective cohort study on 19. Singhal A, Farooqi IS, O’Rahilly S, Cole TJ, Fewtrell M, Lucas A. Early breast-feeding and otitis media in Swedish infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. nutrition and leptin concentrations in later life. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002; 46. Pisacane A, Graziano L, Mazzarella G, Scarpellino B, Zona G. Breast- 20. Schanler RJ, Shulman RJ, Lau C. Feeding strategies for premature feeding and urinary tract infection. J Pediatr. 1992;120:87– 89 infants: beneficial outcomes of feeding fortified human milk versus 47. Marild S, Hansson S, Jodal U, Oden A, Svedberg K. Protective effect of preterm formula. Pediatrics. 1999;103:1150 –1157 breastfeeding against urinary tract infection. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93: 21. Lucas A, Cole TJ. Breast milk and neonatal necrotising enterocolitis.
48. Chen A, Rogan WJ. Breastfeeding and the risk of postneonatal death in 22. Blaymore Bier J, Oliver T, Ferguson A, Vohr BR. Human milk reduces outpatient upper respiratory symptoms in premature infants during www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/113/5/e435 their first year of life. J Perinatol. 2002;22:354 –359 49. Horne RS, Parslow PM, Ferens D, Watts AM, Adamson TM. Compar- 23. Heinig MJ. Host defense benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. Effect ison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants. Arch Dis of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001; 50. Ford RPK, Taylor BJ, Mitchell EA, et al. Breastfeeding and the risk of 24. Cochi SL, Fleming DW, Hightower AW, et al. Primary invasive Hae- sudden infant death syndrome. Int J Epidemiol. 1993;22:885– 890 mophilus influenzae type b disease: a population-based assessment of 51. Mitchell EA, Taylor BJ, Ford RPK, et al. Four modifiable and other risk factors. J Pediatr. 1986;108:887– 896 major risk factors for cot death: the New Zealand study. J Paediatr Child 25. Istre GR, Conner JS, Broome CV, Hightower A, Hopkins RS. Risk factors for primary invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease: increased 52. Scragg LK, Mitchell EA, Tonkin SL, Hassall IB. Evaluation of the cot risk from day care attendance and school-aged household members.
death prevention programme in South Auckland. N Z Med J. 1993;106: 26. Takala AK, Eskola J, Palmgren J, et al. Risk factors of invasive Hae- 53. Alm B, Wennergren G, Norvenius SG, et al. Breast feeding and the mophilus influenzae type b disease among children in Finland. J Pediatr. sudden infant death syndrome in Scandinavia, 1992–95. Arch Dis Child. 27. Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen-Rivers LA. Differences in morbidity 54. McVea KL, Turner PD, Peppler DK. The role of breastfeeding in between breast-fed and formula-fed infants. J Pediatr. 1995;126:696 –702 sudden infant death syndrome. J Hum Lact. 2000;16:13–20 55. Mosko S, Richard C, McKenna J. Infant arousals during mother-infant 82. Carbajal R, Veerapen S, Couderc S, Jugie M, Ville Y. Analgesic effect of bed sharing: implications for infant sleep and sudden infant death breast feeding in term neonates: randomized controlled trial. BMJ. syndrome research. Pediatrics. 1997;100:841– 849 56. Gerstein HC. Cow’s milk exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A 83. Labbok MH. Effects of breastfeeding on the mother. Pediatr Clin North critical overview of the clinical literature. Diabetes Care. 1994;17:13–19 57. Kostraba JN, Cruickshanks KJ, Lawler-Heavner J, et al. Early exposure 84. Chua S, Arulkumaran S, Lim I, Selamat N, Ratnam SS. Influence of to cow’s milk and solid foods in infancy, genetic predisposition, and breastfeeding and nipple stimulation on postpartum uterine activity.
the risk of IDDM. Diabetes. 1993;42:288 –295 Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994;101:804 – 805 58. Pettit DJ, Forman MR, Hanson RL, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Breast- 85. Kennedy KI, Labbok MH, Van Look PF. Lactational amenorrhea feeding and the incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus method for family planning. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1996;54:55–57 in Pima Indians. Lancet. 1997;350:166 –168 86. Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA. Maternal weight-loss patterns 59. Perez-Bravo E, Carrasco E, Guitierrez-Lopez MD, Martinez MT, Lopez during prolonged lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58:162–166 G, de los Rios MG. Genetic predisposition and environmental factors 87. Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Longnecker MP, et al. Lactation and a leading to the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1994;330: Chilean children. J Mol Med. 1996;74:105–109 60. Davis MK. Review of the evidence for an association between infant 88. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast feeding and childhood cancer. Int J Cancer Suppl. 1998;11:29 –33 cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data 61. Smulevich VB, Solionova LG, Belyakova SV. Parental occupation and from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 other factors and cancer risk in children: I. Study methodology and women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease.
non-occupational factors. Int J Cancer. 1999;83:712–717 62. Bener A, Denic S, Galadari S. Longer breast-feeding and protection 89. Lee SY, Kim MT, Kim SW, Song MS, Yoon SJ. Effect of lifetime against childhood leukaemia and lymphomas. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37: lactation on breast cancer risk: a Korean women’s cohort study. Int J 63. Armstrong J, Reilly JJ, Child Health Information Team. Breastfeeding and lowering the risk of childhood obesity. Lancet. 2002;359:2003–2004 90. Tryggvadottir L, Tulinius H, Eyfjord JE, Sigurvinsson T. Breastfeeding 64. Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B.
and reduced risk of breast cancer in an Icelandic cohort study. Am J Breast-fed infants are leaner than formula-fed infants at 1 year of age: the DARLING study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:140 –145 91. Enger SM, Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Bernstein L. Breastfeeding expe- 65. Arenz S, Ruckerl R, Koletzko B, Von Kries R. Breast-feeding and rience and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. Cancer childhood obesity—a systematic review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7:365–369 92. Jernstrom H, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, et al. Breast-feeding and the risk of 66. Grummer-Strawn LM, Mei Z. Does breastfeeding protect against pe- breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer diatric overweight? Analysis of longitudinal data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance Sys- 93. Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB. Lactation and the risk of epithelial ovarian tem. Pediatrics. 2004;113(2). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/ cancer. WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid contracep- tives. Int J Epidemiol. 1993;22:192–197 67. Stettler N, Zemel BS, Kumanyika S, Stallings VA. Infant weight gain 94. Cumming RG, Klineberg RJ. Breastfeeding and other reproductive and childhood overweight status in a multicenter, cohort study. Pedi- factors and the risk of hip fractures in elderly women. Int J Epidemiol. 68. Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Camargo CA, et al. Risk of overweight 95. Lopez JM, Gonzalez G, Reyes V, Campino C, Diaz S. Bone turnover among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. JAMA. 2001;285: and density in healthy women during breastfeeding and after wean- ing. Osteoporos Int. 1996;6:153–159 69. Toschke AM, Vignerova J, Lhotska L, Osancova K, Koletzko B, von 96. Paton LM, Alexander JL, Nowson CA, et al. Pregnancy and lactation Kries R. Overweight and obesity in 6- to 14-year old Czech children have no long-term deleterious effect on measures of bone mineral in in 1991: protective effect of breast-feeding. J Pediatr. 2002;141: healthy women: a twin study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:707–714 97. Weimer J. The Economic Benefits of Breast Feeding: A Review and Analysis.
70. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Prevention Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report No. 13. Washington, of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2003;112:424 – 430 DC: Food and Rural Economics Division, Economic Research Service, 71. Owen CG, Whincup PH, Odoki K, Gilg JA, Cook DG. Infant feeding and blood cholesterol: a study in adolescents and a systematic review.
98. Ball TM, Wright AL. Health care cost of formula-feeding in the first year of life. Pediatrics. 1999;103:870 – 876 72. Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and 99. Tuttle CR, Dewey KG. Potential cost savings for Medi-Cal, AFDC, food stamps, and WIC programs associated with increasing breast-feeding www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/101/1/e9 among low-income Hmong women in California. J Am Diet Assoc. 73. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Remley DT. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:525–535 100. Cohen R, Mrtek MB, Mrtek RG. Comparison of maternal absenteeism 74. Jacobson SW, Chiodo LM, Jacobson JL. Breastfeeding effects on intel- and infant illness rates among breast-feeding and formula-feeding ligence quotient in 4- and 11-year-old children. Pediatrics. 1999;103(5).
women in two corporations. Am J Health Promot. 1995;10:148 –153 Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/103/5/e71 101. Jarosz LA. Breast-feeding versus formula: cost comparison. Hawaii Med 75. Reynolds A. Breastfeeding and brain development. Pediatr Clin North 102. Levine RE, Huffman SL, Center to Prevent Childhood Malnutrition.
76. Mortensen EL, Michaelsen KF, Sanders SA, Reinisch JM. The associa- The Economic Value of Breastfeeding, the National, Public Sector, Hos- tion between duration of breastfeeding and adult intelligence. JAMA.
2002;287:2365–2371 pital and Household Levels: A Review of the Literature. Washington, DC: 77. Batstra L, Neeleman, Hadders-Algra M. Can breast feeding modify the Social Sector Analysis Project, Agency for International Development; adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child’s cognitive development? J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57:403– 404 103. Chen Y-T. Defects in galactose metabolism. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman 78. Rao MR, Hediger ML, Levine RJ, Naficy AB, Vik T. Effect of breast- RM, Jenson HB, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 16th ed. Philadelphia, feeding on cognitive development of infants born small for gestational age. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91:267–274 104. Ando Y, Saito K, Nakano S, et al. Bottle-feeding can prevent transmis- 79. Bier JA, Oliver T, Ferguson AE, Vohr BR. Human milk improves sion of HTLV-I from mothers to their babies. J Infect. 1989;19:25–29 cognitive and motor development of premature infants during in- 105. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and USPHS Working fancy. J Hum Lact. 2002;18:361–367 Group. Guidelines for counseling persons infected with human T- 80. Feldman R, Eidelman AI. Direct and indirect effects of breast-milk on lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) and type II (HTLV-II). Ann Intern the neurobehavioral and cognitive development of premature infants.
Dev Psychobiol. 2003;43:109 –119 106. Gori G, Cama G, Guerresi E, et al. Radioactivity in breastmilk and 81. Gray L, Miller LW, Phillip BL, Blass EM. Breastfeeding is analgesic in placenta after Chernobyl accident [letter]. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988; healthy newborns. Pediatrics. 2002;109:590 –593 107. Robinson PS, Barker P, Campbell A, Henson P, Surveyor I, Young PR.
131. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Nutritional Status During Preg- Iodine-131 in breast milk following therapy for thyroid carcinoma.
nancy and Lactation. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington, DC: Na- tional Academy Press; 1991:24 –25, 161–171, 197–200 108. Bakheet SM, Hammami MM. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the 132. The Ross Mothers Survey. Breastfeeding Trends Through 2002. Abbott lactating breast. Eur J Nucl Med. 1994;21:604 – 608 Park, IL: Ross Products Division, Abbot Laboratories; 2002 109. Egan PC, Costanza ME, Dodion P, Egorin MJ, Bachur NR. Doxorubicin 133. World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. Pro- and cisplatin excretion into human milk. Cancer Treat Rep. 1985;69: tecting, Promoting and Supporting Breast-Feeding: The Special Role of Ma- ternity Services. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 110. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. 2001;108: 134. Powers NG, Naylor AJ, Wester RA. Hospital policies: crucial to breast- feeding success. Semin Perinatol. 1994;18:517–524 111. American Academy of Pediatrics. Transmission of infectious agents 135. Freed GL, Clark SJ, Sorenson J, Lohr JA, Cefalo R, Curtis P. National via human milk. In: Pickering LK, ed. Red Book: 2003 Report of the assessment of physicians’ breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, train- Committee on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: Amer- ing, and experience. JAMA. 1995;273:472– 476 ican Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:118 –121 136. Braveman P, Egerter S, Pearl M, Marchi K, Miller C. Problems associ- 112. Read JS; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric ated with early discharge of newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1995;96: AIDS. Human milk, breastfeeding, and transmission of human immu- nodeficiency virus type 1 in the United States. Pediatrics. 2003;112: 137. Williams LR, Cooper MK. Nurse-managed postpartum home care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1993;22:25–31 113. World Health Organization. HIV and Infant Feeding: A Guide for Health 138. Gielen AC, Faden RR, O’Campo P, Brown CH, Paige DM. Maternal Care Managers and Supervisors. Publication Nos. WHO/FRH/NUT/ employment during the early postpartum period: effects on initiation 98.2, UNAIDS/98.4, UNICEF/PD/NUT/(J)98.2. Geneva, Switzerland: and continuation of breast-feeding. Pediatrics. 1991;87:298 –305 139. Ryan AS, Martinez GA. Breast-feeding and the working mother: a 114. Kourtis AP, Buteera S, Ibegbu C, Belec L, Duerr A. Breast milk and profile. Pediatrics. 1989;83:524 –531 HIV-1: vector of transmission or vehicle of protection? Lancet Infect Dis. 140. Frederick IB, Auerback KG. Maternal-infant separation and breast- feeding. The return to work or school. J Reprod Med. 1985;30:523–526 115. Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L, Coovadia HM. Influence 141. Spisak S, Gross SS. Second Followup Report: The Surgeon General’s Work- of infant-feeding patterns on early mother-to-child transmission of shop on Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. Washington, DC: National HIV-I in Durban, South Africa: a prospective cohort study. South Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health; 1991 African Vitamin A Study Group. Lancet. 1999;354:471– 476 142. World Health Assembly. International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk 116. Coutsoudis A, Rollins N. Breast-feeding and HIV transmission: the Substitutes. Resolution of the 34th World Health Assembly. No. 34.22, jury is still out. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;36:434 – 442 Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1981 117. Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Appendix E. Precautions and breastfeed- 143. Howard CR, Howard FM, Weitzman ML. Infant formula distribution ing recommendations for selected maternal infections. In: Breastfeeding: and advertising in pregnancy: a hospital survey. Birth. 1994;21:14 –19 A Guide for the Medical Profession. 5th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby Inc; 144. Howard FM, Howard CR, Weitzman M. The physician as advertiser: the unintentional discouragement of breast-feeding. Obstet Gynecol. 118. Berlin CM Jr, LaKind JS, Sonawane BR, et al. Conclusions, research needs, and recommendations of the expert panel: Technical Work- 145. Freed GL, Jones TM, Fraley JK. Attitudes and education of pediatric shop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental house staff concerning breast-feeding. South Med J. 1992;85:483– 485 Chemicals in the United States. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002;65: 146. Williams EL, Hammer LD. Breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge of pediatricians-in-training. Am J Prev Med. 1995;11:26 –33 119. Ribas-Fito N, Cardo E, Sala M, et al. Breastfeeding, exposure to or- 147. Gartner LM. Introduction. Breastfeeding in the hospital. Semin Perina- ganochlorine compounds, and neurodevelopment in infants. Pediatrics. 2003;111(5). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/111/ 148. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Breastfeed- ing. In: Kleinman RE, ed. Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. 5th ed. Elk 120. Hamprecht K, Maschmann J, Vochem M, Dietz K, Speer CP, Jahn G.
Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2004:55– 85 Epidemiology of transmission of cytomegalovirus from mother to 149. American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic preterm infant by breastfeeding. Lancet. 2001;357:513–518 Association: breaking the barriers to breastfeeding. J Am Diet Assoc. 121. Yasuda A, Kimura H, Hayakawa M, et al. Evaluation of cytomegalo- virus infections transmitted via breast milk in preterm infants with a 150. Schanler RJ, Hurst NM. Human milk for the hospitalized preterm real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Pediatrics. 2003;111: infant. Semin Perinatol. 1994;18:476 – 484 151. Lemons P, Stuart M, Lemons JA. Breast-feeding the premature infant.
122. Friis H, Andersen HK. Rate of inactivation of cytomegalovirus in raw banked milk during storage at Ϫ20 degrees C and pasteurisation. Br 152. Kron RE, Stein M, Goddard KE. Newborn sucking behavior affected Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1982;285:1604 –1605 by obstetric sedation. Pediatrics. 1966;37:1012–1016 123. Anderson PO. Alcohol and breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 1995;11:321–323 153. Ransjo-Arvidson AB, Matthiesen AS, Lilja G, Nissen E, Widstrom AM, 124. American Academy of Pediatrics, Subcommittee on Hyperbiliru- Uvnas-Moberg K. Maternal analgesia during labor disturbs newborn binemia. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 behavior: effects on breastfeeding, temperature, and crying. Birth. or more weeks of gestation. Pediatrics. 2004;114:297–316 125. Ryan AS, Wenjun Z, Acosta A. Breastfeeding continues to increase into 154. Widstrom A-M, Thingstrom-Paulsson J. The position of the tongue the new millennium. Pediatrics. 2002;110:1103–1109 during rooting reflexes elicited in newborn infants before the first 126. Polhamus B, Dalenius K, Thompson D, et al. Pediatric Nutrition Sur- suckle. Acta Paediatr. 1993;82:281–283 veillance 2001 Report. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Hu- 155. Wolf L, Glass RP. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Infancy: Assess- man Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003 ment and Management. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment, Inc; 127. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Breastfeeding: maternal and infant aspects. ACOG Educational Bulletin Number 258.
156. Righard L, Alade MO. Effect of delivery room routine on success of Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and first breast-feed. Lancet. 1990;336:1105–1107 157. Wiberg B, Humble K, de Chateau P. Long-term effect on mother-infant 128. American Academy of Family Physicians. AAFP Policy Statement on behavior of extra contact during the first hour post partum. V. Fol- Breastfeeding. Leawood, KS: American Academy of Family Physicians; low-up at three years. Scand J Soc Med. 1989;17:181–191 158. Mikiel-Kostyra K, Mazur J, Boltruszko I. Effect of early skin-to-skin 129. Fifty-Fourth World Health Assembly. Global Strategy for Infant and contact after delivery on duration of breastfeeding: a prospective co- Young Child Feeding. The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding.
hort study. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91:1301–1306 Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2001 159. Christensson K, Siles C, Moreno L, et al. Temperature, metabolic 130. United Nations Children’s Fund. Breastfeeding: Foundation for a Healthy adaptation and crying in healthy, full-term newborns cared for skin- Future. New York, NY: United Nations Children’s Fund; 1999 to-skin or in a cot. Acta Paediatr. 1992;81:488 – 493 160. Van Den Bosch CA, Bullough CH. Effect of early suckling on term 185. Sugarman M, Kendall-Tackett KA. Weaning ages in a sample of Amer- neonates’ core body temperature. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1990;10: ican women who practice extended breastfeeding. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 161. Sosa R, Kennell JH, Klaus M, Urrutia JJ. The effect of early mother- 186. Dallman PR. Progress in the prevention of iron deficiency in infants.
infant contact on breast feeding, infection and growth. In: Lloyd JL, ed.
Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl. 1990;365:28 –37 Breast-feeding and the Mother. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier; 1976: 187. Domellof M, Lonnerdal B, Abrams SA, Hernell O. Iron absorption in breast-fed infants: effects of age, iron status, iron supplements, and 162. American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians complementary foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:198 –204 and Gynecologists. Care of the neonate. In: Gilstrap LC, Oh W, eds.
188. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn, Guidelines for Perinatal Care. 5th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Nutritional needs of preterm neonates. In: Guidelines for Perinatal Care. 5th ed.
163. Shrago L. Glucose water supplementation of the breastfed infant dur- Washington, DC: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College ing the first three days of life. J Hum Lact. 1987;3:82– 86 of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2002:259 –263 164. Goldberg NM, Adams E. Supplementary water for breast-fed babies in 189. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Nutritional a hot and dry climate—not really a necessity. Arch Dis Child. 1983;58: needs of the preterm infant. In: Kleinman RE, ed. Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. 5th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of 165. Eidelman AI. Hypoglycemia in the breastfed neonate. Pediatr Clin 190. Pisacane A, De Vizia B, Valiante A, et al. Iron status in breast-fed 166. Howard CR, Howard FM, Lamphear B, de Blieck EA, Eberly S, Law- infants. J Pediatr. 1995;127:429 – 431 rence RA. The effects of early pacifier use on breastfeeding duration.
191. Griffin IJ, Abrams SA. Iron and breastfeeding. Pediatr Clin North Am. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/ 192. Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Rivera LL, Brown KH. Effects of age of intro- 167. Howard CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, et al. Randomized clinical trial duction of complementary foods on iron status of breastfed infants in of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cupfeeding and their effect on Honduras. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:878 – 884 breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2003;111:511–518 193. Naylor AJ, Morrow AL. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term 168. Schubiger G, Schwarz U, Tonz O. UNICEF/WHO Baby-Friendly Hos- Infants to Progress From Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of pital Initiative: does the use of bottles and pacifiers in the neonatal Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning nursery prevent successful breastfeeding? Neonatal Study Group. Eur Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Repro- ductive and Lactational Development. Washington, DC: Wellstart In- 169. Kramer MS, Barr RG, Dagenais S, et al. Pacifier use, early weaning, and ternational and the LINKAGES Project/Academy of Educational cry/fuss behavior: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;286: 194. Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Canahuati J, Rivera LL, Dewey KG. Determi- 170. Gunther M. Instinct and the nursing couple. Lancet. 1955;1:575–578 nants of growth from birth to 12 months among breast-fed Honduran 171. Klaus MH. The frequency of suckling. A neglected but essential infants in relation to age of introduction of complementary foods.
ingredient of breast-feeding. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1987;14: 195. Ashraf RN, Jalil F, Aperia A, Lindblad BS. Additional water is not 172. Procianoy RS, Fernandes-Filho PH, Lazaro L, Sartori NC, Drebes S.
needed for healthy breast-fed babies in a hot climate. Acta Paediatr. The influence of rooming-in on breastfeeding. J Trop Pediatr. 1983;29: 196. Huffman SL, Ford K, Allen H, Streble P. Nutrition and fertility in 173. Anderson GC. Risk in mother-infant separation postbirth. Image J Nurs Bangladesh: breastfeeding and post partum amenorrhoea. Popul Stud 174. Riordan J, Bibb D, Miller M, Rawlins T. Predicting breastfeeding 197. Dettwyler KA. A time to wean: the hominid blueprint for the natural duration using the LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool. J Hum Lact. age of weaning in modern human populations. In: Stuart-Macadam P, Dettwyler KA, eds. Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives. Hawthorne, 175. Hall RT, Mercer AM, Teasley SL, et al. A breast-feeding assessment score to evaluate the risk for cessation of breast-feeding by 7 to 10 days 198. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Iron forti- of age. J Pediatr. 2002;141:659 – 664 fication of infant formulas. Pediatrics. 1999;104:119 –123 176. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Practice and Ambu- 199. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn.
latory Medicine. Recommendations for preventive pediatric health Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. Pediatrics. 2003; care. Pediatrics. 2000;105:645– 646 177. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and Newborn.
200. Hansen KN, Ebbesen F. Neonatal vitamin K prophylaxis in Denmark: Hospital stay for healthy term newborns. Pediatrics. 1995;96:788 –790 three years’ experience with oral administration during the first three 178. Ahn CH, MacLean WC Jr. Growth of the exclusively breast-fed infant.
months of life compared with one oral administration at birth. Acta 179. Brown KH, Dewey KG, Allen LH. Complementary Feeding of Young 201. Gartner LM, Greer FR; American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Children in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Scientific Knowl- Breastfeeding and Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and edge. Publication No. WHO/NUT/98.1. Geneva, Switzerland: World vitamin D deficiency: new guidelines for vitamin D intake. Pediatrics. 180. Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG. Intake 202. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for and growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants in relation to the using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States.
timing of introduction of complementary foods: the DARLING study.
MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50(RR-14):1– 42 Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition, and Growth. Acta 203. Blair PS, Fleming PJ, Smith IJ, et al. Babies sleeping with parents: case-control study of factors influencing the risk of the sudden infant 181. Kramer MS, Kakuma R. The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding. death syndrome. BMJ. 1999;319:1457–1462 A Systematic Review. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 204. Charpak N, Ruiz-Pelaez JG, Figueroa de C Z, Charpak Y. Kangaroo mother versus traditional care for newborn infants Յ2000 grams: a 182. Chantry CJ, Howard CR, Auinger P. Breastfeeding fully for 6 months randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 1997;100:682– 688 vs. 4 months decreases risk of respiratory tract infection [abstract 205. Hurst N, Valentine CJ, Renfro L, Burns P, Ferlic L. Skin-to-skin holding in the neonatal intensive care influences maternal milk volume. J 183. Dewey KG, Cohen RJ, Brown KH, Rivera LL. Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for four versus six months on maternal nutritional status 206. Hughes V. Guidelines for the establishment and operation of a human and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in milk bank. J Hum Lact. 1990;6:185–186 Honduras. J Nutr. 2001;131:262–267 207. Human Milk Banking Association of North America. Guidelines for 184. Butte NF, Lopez-Alarcon MG, Garza C. Nutrient Adequacy of Exclusive Establishment and Operation of a Donor Human Milk Bank. Raleigh, NC: Breastfeeding for the Term Infant During the First Six Months of Life.
Human Milk Banking Association of North America Inc; 2003 Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002 208. Arnold LD. Clinical uses of donor milk. J Hum Lact. 1990;6:132–133 209. Kaplan M, Hammerman C. Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a 214. American Academy of Pediatrics, Breastfeeding Promotion in Physi- potential complication of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase defi- cians’ Office Practices Program. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Acad- ciency. Clin Perinatol. 1998;25:575–590, viii 210. Kaplan M, Vreman HJ, Hammerman C, Schimmel MS, Abrahamov A, 215. Freed GL, Clark SJ, Lohr JA, Sorenson JR. Pediatrician involvement in Stevenson DK. Favism by proxy in nursing glucose-6-dehydrogenase- breast-feeding promotion: a national study of residents and practitio- deficient neonates. J Perinatol. 1998;18:477– 479 ners. Pediatrics. 1995;96:490 – 494 211. Gerk PM, Kuhn RJ, Desai NS, McNamara PJ. Active transport of 216. Brown LP, Bair AH, Meier PP. Does federal funding for breastfeeding nitrofurantoin into human milk. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21:669 – 675 research target our national health objectives? Pediatrics. 2003;111(4).
212. American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Pediatric Dentistry. Oral Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/111/4/e360 health risk assessment timing and establishment of the dental home.
Pediatrics. 2003;111:1113–1116 213. Fewtrell MS, Lucas P, Collier S, Singhal A, Ahluwalia JS, Lucas A.
Randomized trial comparing the efficacy of a novel manual breast All policy statements from the American Academy of pump with a standard electric breast pump in mothers who delivered Pediatrics automatically expire 5 years after publication unless preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2001;107:1291–1297 reaffirmed, revised, or retired at or before that time.

Source: http://arnone.de.unifi.it/mami/Docs/aapbf05.pdf

Resultados de investaigacin del programa

Resultados de investigación del Programa TESIS DOCTORALES Autor Director/es Universidad electroquímicas Modelización de la disolución anódica del cinc Mecanismo de Oxidación Electroquímica de Aminas y Enlaces Covalentes Metal-Nitrógeno. Láminas magnéticas de aleaciones de base cobalto obtenidas por insulina con monocapas de lípidos Adsorción de adenina sobre de bajo

Microsoft word - buteyko class health intake form

LISA BOWEN/BREATHING RETRAINING CENTER HEALTH INTAKE FORM PLEASE FILL IN ALL THE INFORMATION ON EACH OF THE FOUR PAGES RELEVANT TO YOU: Name: Mr / Mrs / Ms / Miss ___________________________________________________________ Address: ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Email a

Copyright © 2010-2014 Pdf Physician Treatment