Servicio de Psiquiatría-CAS Vall d’Hebron
Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona (ASPB)
Programa Clínico DepresiónServicio de Psiquiatría
3Servicio de Psiquiatría del Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu
Instituto Clínico de NeurocienciasHospital Clínic de Barcelona
Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge-IDIBELLCIBERSAM
bupropion in the treatment of addiction in patients with cocaine dependence who are receiving maintenance treatment
Dual pathology is defined as the coexistence of an
with methadone6 or even in patients affected by an attention
addiction in persons suffering another mental disorder.1 The
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or dual ADHD.5
course, prognosis and treatment of patients are different from those who do not have dual pathology.2 It is known that smoking determines worse prognosis and greater
TREATMENT WITH BUPROPION OF DEPRESSED
clinical severity of bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia and
PATIENTS WITH DUAL PATHOLOGY
Bupropion can be used in the treatment of depressive
It has been described that patients with mental disorders
patients with dual pathology, aiming to obtain the
smoke more and spend more on this habit than the general
antidepressant effect or to facilitate smoking cessation,
population and have a greater frequency of associated medical
since its efficacy as smoking cessation treatment is
conditions.4 In patients with schizophrenia and SAD, nicotine
independent of its antidepressant action.8
dependence has been related with a higher rate of suicide attempts and with alcohol and cannabis consumption.3
It is known that drug abuse in depressed patients is
Treatments effective in the general population are also
associated to greater suicidal risk and attempts, earlier onset
effective in patients with psychiatric disorders and little
of depression, more anxiety disorders and functioning
attention has been given to this population.4 Bupropion is a
alterations. 9 However, treatment of patients with dual
norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor and is one of
pathology has been studied little and the results of its
the treatments used most for smoking cessation and as an
efficacy have not always been consistent. 10 In relationship
antidepressant drug.5 However, few specific works exist on
to smoking cessation treatment, in spite of the strong
the use of bupropion in patients with dual pathology, even
association between smoking and depression, the studies on
though it has been used as a drug for smoking cessation, in
smoking cessation usually exclude depressed patient11 or
patients with dual diagnosis of affective and psychotic
this population has been studied little.4 Of these specific
disorders. Furthermore, there are signs about the use of
works, it is known that patients with backgrounds of major depressive disorders benefit the same as the general
* Francisca Almansa, Carmen Barral, Milagrosa Blanca, Nagore Benito, Joan Cadevall,
population from psychotherapy and pharmacological
Horacio Casté, Nuria Custal, Anna Falcés, Eva Fontova, Juan Manuel Goicolea, Georgina González, Paul Ernesto González, Ana Herrero, Rafael Martín, Leticia Medeiros, Javier
treatments for smoking cessation. 4 However, drug usage can
Merino, Laura Mora, Josep Mª Otín, Adolfo Pellejero, Rosa Pi, Cristina Pinet, Dolors Robles, Alejandro Rodriguez, Ferran Romaguera, Carme Romero, Carme Sarri, Joan Seguí,
modulate the efficacy of these treatments. The risk of failure
Sara Solé, Carmen Sotelo, Josep Tort, Marc Valentí.
or relapse in alcohol-dependent patients who quit smoking
has been related with the severity and type of alcohol
consumption. Specifically, patients with elevated or very
Servicio de PsiquiatriaHospital Universitari de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, CIBERSAM
frequent alcohol consumption have more relapses.12 Thus,
the existence of dual pathology should be taken into account
08907Correo electrónico: firstname.lastname@example.org
Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2011;39(Suppl. 2):17-9
Scientific evidence indicates that treatment with
trials in which patients with schizophrenia were included
bupropion in addicts who also smoke is effective, regardless
reported that the use of bupropion is superior to placebo
of whether there is associated depression.10 When the use of
in smoking cessation, the results being maintained at 6
bupropion combined with nicotine patches in patients who
months.22-23 With the known data, it can be stated that
receive cognitive behavioral therapy has been studied, it has
bupropion can be used as a drug that facilitates cessation
been demonstrated that abstinence and the depressive
symptoms improve in patients who smoke and who have current or have had past unipolar major depression.11 The
The use of bupropion in patients suffering from SAD
type of association of treatments in patients who smoke and
should be evaluated with caution due to the possibility of
are depressed is not clear since, although bupropion has
precipitating a manic episode. In general, all patients
advantages in regards to smoking cessation, a ceiling effect
affected by psychosis treated with bupropion require
due to the interventions received has been detected in those
periodic psychopathological evaluation and regular medical
control due to the risk of seizures because of its effect on the decrease of the seizure threshold.20
In the patient with behavior disorder, this drug has been
used successfully used in the treatment of the depressive phases of the disease and is considered to be first-line
OPINION OF THE EXPERTS OF THE WORK GROUP
treatment, as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI).13 Up to date, there are no specific studies with
Knowledge on the indications, use and management of
bupropion in patients with dual bipolar disorder, although
bupropion in patients with dual condition are partial.
the increased risk of mania induced by antidepressants is known in bipolar patients with a past history of drug
There is clinical experience and increasingly greater
evidence obtained in clinical trials performed in patients with depression or schizophrenia that point to its utility, both as an antidepressant as well as a smoking cessation
TREATMENT OF DUAL PSYCHOTICS
Bupropion is well tolerated when combined with other
There are clinical experiences with limited cohorts of
schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics in which bupropion was used as an antidepressant. In these
This drug should be used with precaution in patients
studies, improvement of the depressive symptoms with
with risk of appearance of manic pictures.
good tolerability was described.15 On the other hand, there is little experience with the treatment of depressive symptoms in dual schizophrenics. Fundamentally, REFERENCES
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EFFECT OF FERMENTED CHUB MACKEREL EXTRACT ON LIPID METABOLISM OF DIABETIC RATS U. Santoso1, S. Ishikawa2 and K. Tanaka2 1 Faculty of Agriculture, Bengkulu University, Bengkulu - Indonesia. 2Division of Bioresources and Bioproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0809 - Japan Corresponding E-mail: email@example.com Received January 26, 2
In 2007 Finnish research indicated that regular coffee drinking may be connected with a reduced risk to have Parkinson’s disease (Hu et al. 2007). This risk relationship was dependent on the used amount of coffee each day. There was no significant difference between the genders. The findings were similar to those of another published study (Ascherio et al. 2001). The biological risk reduci